Importance Of And Application System Of Biocher On Grass Spss In Ethiopia Pdf

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importance of and application system of biocher on grass spss in ethiopia pdf

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A total of 27 composite soil samples were randomly collected from the CLUS for soil analysis. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and PCA. The lowest and highest bulk density was determined from NF 1.

The invasion success of exotic plants strongly depends on soil properties of new ranges, however, little is known about the joint contribution of soil abiotic and biotic legacies to this success.

Metrics details. Environmental stress is a crucial factor restricting plant growth as well as crop productivity, thus influencing the agricultural sustainability. Biochar addition is proposed as an effective management to improve crop performance. However, there were few studies focused on the effect of biochar addition on crop growth and productivity under interactive effect of abiotic stress e.

A total of 27 composite soil samples were randomly collected from the CLUS for soil analysis. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and PCA. The lowest and highest bulk density was determined from NF 1.

The highest CEC The highest soil OC stock Such soil properties and nutrient stocks variability among the CLUS suggested that introduction of suitable management practices that sustain the soil system of the CLUS with poor soil properties and nutrient stocks are crucial for the study area conditions.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Soil quality is becoming an important resource to raise crop productivity so that to meet the food required for the current and future population in developing countries as their economy mainly depends on agriculture [ 1 — 6 ]. Soil quality is defined as the capacity of the soil to give the intended functions for biomass and yield production [ 7 — 9 ]. In this study, the term soil quality is used synonymously with soil health. Recently, however, soil quality degradation caused by inappropriate cropping system, and land-use and soil management practices, have been reported among the top development challenges that demand urgent remedial actions.

Several reports have shown that soil nutrient depletion and soil physical degradation are the dominant types of degradation associated with land and soil mis-management practices in the semi-arid areas [ 10 — 15 ]. Soil degradation poses serious development challenges in many developing countries including Ethiopia.

Soil degradation induced by land and soil mis-management systems coupled with high dependency on erratic and unreliable rain-fed farming system has aggravated the problem of food insecurity in Ethiopia. Against such problem, implementation of irrigation agriculture has been suggested as the best option in the conditions of Ethiopia [ 16 , 17 ].

In support of the strategy for irrigation development, over 50 micro-dams were built-up since , for being used mainly for irrigation purpose by the smallholder farmers in the Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. Using the water of the micro-dams in the region, so far a great deal of irrigation efforts has been attempted to achieve a sustainable economic, social and ecological developments.

However, the sustainability of economic and ecological benefits from the micro-dams has been challenged by anthropogenic factors that increase sedimentation, soil and nutrients loadings and lowering of water use efficiency. Even though there are problems of siltation and inefficient water use, irrigation agriculture from micro-dams as water source is becoming an essential government strategy for maximizing crop production per unit land area in Ethiopia conditions [ 20 , 21 ].

Irrigation is designed to increase soil water availability and thereby enhances biomass production provided that if there is little effect from salinity problem. The biomass is partly expected to be returned to the soil system to improve soil organic carbon OC and total nitrogen TN concentrations. Other practices such as reforestation of protected landscape, and agroforestry in agricultural lands have been implemented to increase soil organic matter and soil nutrients for the past three decades in Ethiopia [ 9 , 22 — 24 ].

Many researchers e. However, increasing demand for short-term production encourages farmers to cultivate continuously mono-cropping , overgrazed fields, or removed much of the above ground biomass through fuel collection, livestock feed and building materials.

Eventually, such practices reduce soil nutrients and water holding capacity, increases erosion and thereby reduce agricultural productivity. For example, comparable higher OC, TN and other soil nutrients have reported under grassland as compared to cultivated land-use type [ 4 , 14 , 25 , 28 , 29 ]. However, there are limited quantitative evidences that evaluate soil properties under different cropping systems even within the cultivated land-use type and other land-use systems managed by smallholder farmers in the northern Ethiopia conditions.

In developing countries such as Ethiopia, land has been utilized intensively for any purposes regardless of its suitability, which has resulted in severe soil quality degradation. Such degradation has explained by poor soil properties and low agricultural production [ 14 , 26 — 29 ]. Practically, under the existing circumstances and economic conditions of farmers in developing countries such as Ethiopia there is a need to have inexpensive but environmentally sound integrated cropping system and land-use management approach to address soil quality related problems.

To maintain soil quality and reduce crop failures, intercropping which is defined as the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops simultaneously in the same piece of land, has also reported by many researchers e. Intercropping is practiced commonly under irrigated agriculture and sometimes in rain-fed agriculture in northern Ethiopia even though its ecological benefits over the other cropping systems such as mono-cropping, or rotation are not well documented personal observation.

The existing literatures have also shown that there is a need to understand the impacts of continuous and other types of cropping systems on soil quality indicators in order to take appropriate measures that enhance sustainable crop production. The sustainability of soils for agricultural production can be viewed using soil properties as soil quality indicators e.

Increasing crop production in Ethiopia is likely to come from agricultural intensification and diversification through irrigation and other improved soil and agronomic practices. Understanding the impacts of different cropping and land-use practices on soil properties in general and soil OC and TN stock in particular is crucial for designing sustainable soil management practices.

Scientific information on site-specific soil properties is a basic tool for proper soil management in order to provide sustainable soil functions at present and in the future [ 2 , 4 , 14 , 25 , 34 — 36 ]. Site-specific data on soil properties could also support to dealing with spatial variability of soil nutrients and physical indicators and their influencing factors. Such information is important to formulate appropriate sustainable cropping systems and land-use type strategies [ 6 , 12 , 14 , 19 , 36 — 38 ].

The sustainability of crop and soil management practices to improve or maintain soil quality depends on the understanding how soils respond to different site-specific cropping and land-use practices.

Soil properties as indicators of soil functions and soil quality degradation status are suggested for understanding the sustainability of soil resources [ 2 , 14 , 39 , 40 ]. There are many reports that have generalized soil properties and soil nutrient stocks variability among different land-use types such as cultivated, grazing, grass and forest land e. Since the roles of most agricultural practices are site-specific, the same management strategy cannot be recommended using the existing reports for the conditions of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia.

Thus, it necessitates knowing the extent of soil quality degradation in terms of soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient stocks under different management practices such as irrigation and rain-fed cropping and other land-use systems and soil management practices. There is also insufficient information about which soil properties indicators to be monitored over time with regard to the effects of cropping systems and other land-use practices in the study area conditions [ 5 , 12 , 19 , 38 ].

This study was thus hypothesized to test that there is significant variability in soil properties and soil OC and TN stocks across the different cropping and other land-use systems. The objectives of this research were to: i examine variation in soil properties under different long-term cropping and land-use systems CLUS ; ii evaluate soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks across the different CLUS; and iii examine soil properties that explain better for soil quality variability across the different CLUS in the conditions of similar to the Dura sub-catchment, northern Ethiopia.

This research was carried-out from February to June in the Dura sub-catchment of Tigray region, northern Ethiopia Fig 1. The area of the Dura catchment is ha and that of Dura sub-catchment is ha. Altitude of the sub-catchment ranges between and m above sea level [ 44 ]. In the study sub-catchment, mean annual temperature of 22 o C and rainfall of mm were reported using 35 years of meteorological data.

The study sub-catchment receives normal rainfall during June to early September which is unimodal Meteorology Agency-Mekelle branch. Crop and livestock mixed-farming is commonly practiced. Arable land is dominated over the other land-use types in the study sub-catchment. In the Dura sub-catchment, both rain-fed and irrigation agriculture have been practiced for more than 2 decades. But rain-fed agriculture which is the oldest practice is still dominating in area coverage over irrigated land.

About ha farmland has been irrigated since in the Dura sub-catchment. Afforested area, pasture, scattered woody trees, bushes and shrub lands were also found in the study sub-catchment. The dominant soils in the study sub-catchment includes: Eutric Cambisols on the steep slope, Chromic Cambisols on the middle to steep slopes and Chromic Vertisols on the flat areas [ 45 ]. This study sub-catchment was selected as it represents the mid-highland agro-ecology conditions having different CLUS with practices such as irrigated and non-irrigated fields and diversified soil management experiences under the smallholder farmers in the northern Ethiopia.

Reconnaissance surveys coupled with formal and informal group discussions with farmers and development agents DAs were used to identify the different irrigated and non-irrigated cropping and land-use systems CLUS and their specific soil management practices in the Dura sub-catchment, northern Ethiopia. During the field surveys in February and March the researcher together with the DAs visited the study catchment to get an overall impression about the irrigation command area an area where irrigated agriculture is practiced , adjacent rain-fed cropping and other land-use systems.

During the survey, participatory tools such as field observation, transect-walks and group discussions were employed. The transect-walks were done twice, that is, from the east to the west and also from the north to south direction of the study sub-catchment in order to observe different cropping and other land-use systems.

This was done by the team composed of two researchers, three 3 DAs and randomly selected 10 farmers from the study sub-catchment. Three group discussions sessions were held in order to reach consensus among the participants about the descriptions of the irrigated and non-irrigated fields that were selected during the transect-walks.

Elevations and slope of the CLUS considered in this study vary between and m; and 1. Such fields were selected because the soil and crop specific management practices perhaps affect the sustainability of natural resources, crop productivity and soil fertility utilization in the sub-catchment. The selected CLUS were located on Chromic Vertisols adjacent to each other at a distance that ranges between 50 and m which covered a total land area of 15 ha in the study sub-catchment.

Generally, the parent material of the sampling fields is basic metavolcanics. The implication is that any variability in soil properties could be induced due to irrigation, cropping type and soil management practices in the study sub-catchment.

For instance, it was observed in the field that flood and furrow irrigation caused fine soil particles to detach and transport from the source site and deposited in the depositional areas. Differences in slopes even slight differences can aggravate soil particles transportation by flowing water due to furrow irrigation. The same is true for rainfall generated runoff effect on soil particles transportation and deposition.

Such practices are the derivers for soil textural variability across the CLUS in the study sub-catchment. From the total nine 9 CLUS identified, four 4 were from irrigated fields, two 2 from rain-fed cropping system, and three 3 from other land-use systems. The first two land-use systems TM and MM were selected from the rain-fed fields adjacent to the irrigation command area, whereas IC1, IC2, R1 and R2 were selected from the irrigated crop fields.

TG and UTG were also found within the irrigation command area. An adjacent natural forest land-use system NF was used as a reference while compared with the impact of irrigation and non-irrigation cropping and land-use systems on soil properties, and carbon and nitrogen stocks. The targeted fields population were all the cropping and land-use systems CLUS practiced in the Dura sub-catchment.

In consultation with farmers nine CLUS that dominantly available in the sub-catchment were selected. The soil samples were taken from the nine irrigated and non-irrigated CLUS which were selected from the sub-catchment.

Composite soil samples were collected from the selected sampling points in each CLUS using judgmental sampling on the basis of reliable historical and physical knowledge of experts and local farmers as described in Table 1. Soil samples were collected in May Identification of the sampling units using expert knowledge is very efficient as it is quick and easy to select the sampling units.

Considering the costs of soil analysis and its statistical representativeness a total of 27 composite soil samples from the three sampling units 9 CLUS x 3 sampling units were collected. The sampling units were considered as replication of soil sampling from the CLUS.

The soil sampling unit plot area was 48 m 2 6 m x 8 m. The soil sampling plots land features are described in Table 2. In each sampling unit plot 10 pairs of randomly selected coordinate points were identified.

From the 10 geo-referenced points in each sampling plot, three sampling points were selected using simple random sampling technique whereby the composite soil sample from each plot was collected. The soil samples were taken from each sampling point at cm soil depth. This sampling depth was selected as it is where most soil changes are occurred due to long-term cropping systems, land-use types, and soil and water management practices including irrigation agriculture.

Three soil samples were collected from each sampling unit in a plot and pooled composited into a bucket and mixed thoroughly to form a single homogenized sample.

A sub-sample of g soil that represented the pooled sample in the bucket was taken from each sampling unit plot, and air dried and sieved through 2 mm mesh sieves.

Soil texture was determined using the Bouyoucos hydrometer method [ 46 ] and soil dry bulk density DBD by the core method [ 47 ]. Cation exchange capacity CEC was determined by ammonium acetate extraction buffered at pH 7 using flame photometer [ 54 ].

Continuous monoculture of cool-season turfgrass causes soil degradation, and visual turf quality decline is a major concern in black soil regions of Northeast China. Turf mixtures can enhance turfgrass resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and increase soil microbial diversity. Understanding mechanism by plant-soil interactions and changes of black soil microbial communities in turf mixture is beneficial to restoring the degradation of urbanized black soils and maintaining sustainable development of urban landscape ecology. In this study, based on the previous research of different sowing models, two schemes of turf monoculture and mixture were conducted in field plots during — in a black soil of Heilongjiang province of Northeast China. Turf performance, soil physiochemical properties, and microbial composition from rhizosphere were investigated.

We studied the effects of Acacia seyal Del. A split-plot design with three replications was used. Acacia intercropping significantly reduced sorghum grain yields while biochar had no significant effect on sorghum yields. The land equivalent ratio LER for sorghum yield was 0. The reduction in sorghum yields by the A. The lack of a yield response to biochar maybe due to insufficient time or too low a dosage. Further research is needed to test for the effects of tree intercropping and biochar and their interactions on soil properties and crop yields in drylands.


Ethiopia, where only 30% of the total waste is collected and disposed on landfills [3]. converting organic wastes into compost, and it has advantages over other biochar alone application to soil can improve soil fertility and plant experiments were khat (Catha edulis) straws, dry grass and leaves.


Land degradation caused by improper land use management is a critical worldwide problem that has revived the issue of resources sustainability. Soil degradation, which involves physical, chemical, and biological degradation, is the key component of land degradation. Assessment of soil quality SQ indicators that distinguish soil degradation in different land use LU types is enviable to achieve sustainable land management strategies.

A total of 27 composite soil samples were randomly collected from the CLUS for soil analysis. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and PCA. The lowest and highest bulk density was determined from NF 1.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Salt stress is one of the key factors that limits the cultivation of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

Не было видно даже кнопочных электронных панелей на дверях кабинетов. Когда ее глаза привыкли к темноте, Сьюзан разглядела, что единственным источником слабого света в шифровалке был открытый люк, из которого исходило заметное красноватое сияние ламп, находившихся в подсобном помещении далеко внизу. Она начала двигаться в направлении люка. В воздухе ощущался едва уловимый запах озона. Остановившись у края люка, Сьюзан посмотрела. Фреоновые вентиляторы с урчанием наполняли подсобку красным туманом. Прислушавшись к пронзительному звуку генераторов, Сьюзан поняла, что включилось аварийное питание.

 Turista, - усмехнулся. И прошептал чуть насмешливо: - Llamo un medico. Вызвать доктора. Беккер поднял глаза на усыпанное родинками старческое лицо.


means of increasing crop productivity. Two of the most commonly reported benefits of biochars are improved soil water availability and nutrient.


Слова Стратмора эхом звучали в его ушах. Мне нужно все, что было у Танкадо при. Все. Не упустите. Даже клочка бумаги.

 - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью.

Пуля ударилась в стену точно над. - Mierda! - вскипел Халохот. Беккеру удалось увернуться в последнее мгновение. Убийца шагнул к. Беккер поднялся над безжизненным телом девушки.

 Да вы все спятили. Это за четыреста-то баксов.

Выйдя на улицу, Беккер увидел у входа в парк телефонную будку. Он чуть ли не бегом бросился к ней, схватил трубку и вставил в отверстие телефонную карту. Соединения долго не. Наконец раздались длинные гудки.

Соши быстро удалила пробелы, но никакой ясности это не внесло. PFEESESNRETMMFHAIRWEOOIGMEENNRMА ENETSHASDCNSIIAAIEERBRNKFBLELODI Джабба взорвался: - Довольно. Игра закончена.

Она показала на экран. Все глаза были устремлены на нее, на руку Танкадо, протянутую к людям, на три пальца, отчаянно двигающихся под севильским солнцем. Джабба замер. - О Боже! - Он внезапно понял, что искалеченный гений все это время давал им ответ.

 Вы меня не знаете, молодой человек. Я рисковал всю свою жизнь.

3 Comments

  1. Robert F. 16.04.2021 at 14:23

    Biochar addition should also increase soil fertility in a similar way as percentage of fine material like grass, leaves and twigs), All analyses were performed with SPSS achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to tem- of biochar impact on composting especially in tropical systems are.

  2. Pirro B. 19.04.2021 at 09:24

    Biochar improves phosphorus use efficiency of organic-inorganic fertilizers, very important to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity in soils system. The internal chamber had an inlet hole of 8 inch diameter. through were performed with SPSS for windows software v. Carbon stocks in Ethiopian.

  3. Antu L. 21.04.2021 at 03:25

    Metrics details.