Strengths And Weaknesses Of Modernization Theory Pdf

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Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies. Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or ' traditional ' to a 'modern' society. Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber — , which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons — The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have been. Modernization theory was a dominant paradigm in the social sciences in the s and s, then went into a deep eclipse.

Dependency and world systems theories

A macro-theory with historical, economic and sociological inspiration, modernisation theory seeks to establish how different societies progress, which variables affect this progress, and the effects of societal progress on human communication. Furthermore, many theorists in the field have examined how modernisation processes, especially economic growth, relate to democratisation and democratic consolidation Huntington A recurring theme, therefore, in modernisation theory is the opinion that globalisation and international connectedness lead to a consensus that the most desirable systems for modernisation are liberal democratisation and Western models of capitalist development Johannessen 6.

Liberal modernisation theorists see modernisation as a lengthy, irreversible, and complex evolutionary process that completely transforms a society. Rostow presented a definitive account of how countries evolve in order to become modern, claiming that there were five stages of development. This is achieved, according to most modernisation theorists, including Rostow, through the introduction of material forces such as capital and investment from the West, the acceptance of Western institutions such as the nuclear family and democratic establishments, and the export of manufactured goods to the West Rostow Modernisation theory can quite obviously be criticised from a neo-modernist or Marxist viewpoint as Western-centric.

The countries of Western Europe and the North Atlantic, evidently, evolved through the process outlined by Rostow. Nevertheless, the theory is unsustainable when applied globally, due to the abundance of counter-examples and anomalies to this hypothesis, evident by analysing the international political economy.

India, which has been a constitutional democracy since its independence, seems to have become less democratic as it has modernised. Furthermore, China is industrialising at an unprecedented rate. Its government, though repressive and unlikely to relinquish power through democratic elections, is open to capitalist investment and business. In other words, the Chinese Communist Party does not support or seek to implement the liberal-democratic values, which the modernisation theorists have hypothesised they would eventually embrace.

This surely proves that, whilst countries modernise, there are different paths to, as well as different branches of, modernity. In other words, by establishing the US model of democracy and liberal-capitalism as the end product of modernisation, modernisation theorists completely disregard other paths to development. Ethnic and religious conflicts, the rise of terrorism, military regimes and economic stagnation have proven that modernisation theorists had underestimated the challenges that LDCs face on the route to modernisation Linklater Diamond 23 argues that a different path to modernisation might be the increasing trend towards hybrid regimes in areas such as Latin America, where elections are held, but none of the usual constitutional checks and balances exist.

On the other hand, there is little evidence to support the claim that all countries will develop to the same level economically, let alone socially or politically. Not all states have seen their economic growth and rise in wealth come from industrialisation, which modernisation theorists claim is the only route to modernity. Many countries rich in natural resources, such as the Middle Eastern, West African and Latin American states, have been incapable of turning this enormous wealth into national economic success.

The link between possession of natural resources and poor economic performance can be proven by considering the recent economic history of the OPEC states. Between and , the average Gross National Product per capita growth of the countries receded by 1.

Furthermore, whilst many countries in the Middle East have undergone rapid economic growth due to oil wealth, social mobilisation has yet to fully materialise Johannesson 7. The theory suggests that the countries of the global North and South are in a structural relationship with one another, and the development of the MDCs, mostly in the North, leads to the underdevelopment of LDCs as a by-product.

It rejects the viewpoint that non-industrial states are merely more primitive versions of MDCs, instead claiming that such countries have their own structures and features, wholly different to developed nations. Additionally, the problem is not that LDCs are not integrated into the global political economy, but is instead how they are integrated Woods Nonetheless, does not the success of Indian, Chinese and East Asian economies, which were once examples supporting this theory, suggest that LDCs can economically modernise in the liberal-capitalist system?

There is no doubt that many liberal modernisation theorists have the optimistic worldview that by adopting the liberal-democratic capitalist values that have been the cornerstone of Western modernisation, the less economically-developed countries of the world would be able to modernise themselves.

Nonetheless, this one-size-fits-all approach towards international political economy can surely not be expected to succeed considering the vast socio-economic and political differences throughout the world.

The rise of Islamic theocracies, the BRICS nations, the recent global financial crisis and the immense debts incurred by third world countries, all suggest that there will never be a time when all countries develop to the same level. In my opinion, the modernisation theory is merely an example of the West imposing its own values upon rest of the world. Auty, Richard M.

Ainley eds. Huntington, Samuel P. Roberts and A. Hite eds. Lenin, Vladimir I. Edited by L. Wishart Moscow: Progress Publishers. Baylis, S. Owens eds. Raphael, Sam; Stokes, Doug. Rostow, Walt W. Sachs, Jeffrey D. Malik eds. Modernization and Islam, Westport: Praeger: Zakaria, Fareed. Written by: Thomas M. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.

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Submissions Advertise Donate About. This content was originally written for an undergraduate or Master's program. It is published as part of our mission to showcase peer-leading papers written by students during their studies. Bibliography Auty, Richard M. Please Consider Donating Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.

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Modernization Theory

Pssst… we can write an original essay just for you. Development refers to the process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage especially a more advanced or mature stage. Again, development in relation to economy is the shift from low and labour intensive productivity to high production and technology intensive activities. The question of development especially in Africa has been a bone of contention. For this reason, writers such as Rostow, Prebisch, Wallestein, Boserup and others propounded theories to address the issues of development and underdevelopment in relation to third world countries.

Unit 1 Poverty Reduction, Development and the MDGs

By the end of the Second World War many of the countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America had failed to develop and remained poor, despite exposure to capitalism. There was concern amongst the leaders of the western developed countries, especially the United States, that communism might spread into many of these countries, potentially harming American business interests abroad and diminishing U. In this context, in the late s, modernisation theory was developed, which aimed to provide a specifically non-communist solution to poverty in the developing world — Its aim was to spread a specifically industrialised, capitalist model of development through the promotion of Western, democratic values. There are two main aspects of modernisation theory — 1 its explanation of why poor countries are underdeveloped, and 2 its proposed solution to underdevelopment. In order to develop, less developed countries basically needed to adopt a similar path to development to the West.

In: Social Issues. Aaron A. Condorcet was the first to make the connection between economic and social development connection and that there can be continuous progress and improvement in human affairs. With that said, new advancements and improvements would need to keep pace with a constantly changing world. Furthermore, he encouraged technological processes to help give people further control over their environments, arguing that technological progress would eventually spur social progress.

Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, "Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents" Eisenstadt , p. Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the s. Primary attention has focused on ways in which past and present premodern societies become modern i.

Strength and Weakness of Modernization and Dependency Theory

Introduction to the Sociology of Development pp Cite as. In the preceding chapter we considered the theory that global modernisation could be explained primarily in terms of the development of certain values, norms and motivations — such as the drive for high achievement. Among those who cultivate such modernising attitudes, it is claimed, are the entrepreneurs of the business world who use the monetary surplus accumulated through wise and steady investment to expand industry and so generate more investable surplus for further expansion. We saw that this theory has serious weaknesses in terms of lacking supporting evidence and analytical strength.

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Modernization theory claimed that once developing societies came into contact with western European and North American societies, they would be impelled toward modernization and, eventually, would achieve the economic, political, and social features characteristic of the nations of western Europe and the United States. However, by the s it was apparent that the Third World was not passing through a stage of underdevelopment, as envisioned by modernization theory, but remaining underdeveloped. Thus, a counterclaim was advanced—that developing countries today are structurally different from the advanced countries and so will have to develop along different lines. These structures created a dynamic that was continuing to impoverish former colonies and to thwart their modernization. According to ECLA, the international division of labour created by colonization had separated the international economy into a centre, consisting of the industrialized countries, and a periphery , which included all the rest of the countries around the world outside of the socialist camp.


Modernization Theory, Strengths and Weaknesses By Watila Development is an elusive concept to define. use of artificial fertilizers, insecticides.


references

The events leading up to the Second World War and the war itself had a profound impact on political and economic structures. The main impact was the emergence of a bi-polar world order, with the rise of a communist power, the USSR, on the one side and the United States as leader of the liberal capitalist system on the other. The US had emerged from the war as the strongest economy, enjoying rapid growth and capital accumulation and saw itself as leader of the emerging monetary and economic system in the capitalist world. A major early objective of the US was to assist Europe's recovery and lay the foundations of a new economic and political order, while containing the spread of communism in Western Europe. It was felt that institutions were needed that were able to create functioning, liberal market economies and order the economic, social, and political development in a post-war world.

Modernization Theory, Strengths and Weaknesses

A macro-theory with historical, economic and sociological inspiration, modernisation theory seeks to establish how different societies progress, which variables affect this progress, and the effects of societal progress on human communication. Furthermore, many theorists in the field have examined how modernisation processes, especially economic growth, relate to democratisation and democratic consolidation Huntington

The purpose of the article is to characterize selected theoretical and methodological advantages, controversies, and limitations of the varieties of capitalism VoC approach in application to Central and Eastern European CEE countries. It indicates the reasons for the usefulness of such an approach for the study of postcommunist capitalism in the region. After a decade of reforms, due to different trajectories of development in the countries of the region, such interpretations lose their explanatory power.

Strength and Weakness of Modernization and Dependency Theory

Игла похищенного у медсестры шприца блеснула в темноте и погрузилась в вену чуть выше запястья Клушара. Шприц был наполнен тридцатью кубиками моющего средства, взятого с тележки уборщицы. Сильный палец нажал на плунжер, вытолкнув синеватую жидкость в старческую вену.

Theories of Underdevelopment

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