The End Of History And The Last Man Summary Pdf

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The End of History Revisited

I n the summer of , the American magazine the National Interest published an essay with the strikingly bold title "The End of History? Its author, the political scientist Francis Fukuyama, announced that the great ideological battles between east and west were over, and that western liberal democracy had triumphed. Fukuyama became an unlikely star of political science, dubbed the "court philosopher of global capitalism" by John Gray. When his book The End of History and the Last Man appeared three years later, the qualifying question mark was gone. The "end of history" thesis has been repeated enough to acquire the ring of truth — though it has also, of course, been challenged. Others have pointed to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and the Arab spring as proof that ideological contests remain. Fukuyama was talking about ideas rather than events.

Book Summary Fukuyama The End of History or the Last Man

Your complimentary articles. You can read four articles free per month. To have complete access to the thousands of philosophy articles on this site, please. Francis Fukuyama is a conservative political philosopher and economist. He was politically active during the Reagan administration, when he worked for the State Department, and also during the Clinton years, mainly through Washington think tanks.

In contrast, Fukuyama explores and asserts his standpoint further. Fukuyama has divided his work into five distinctive parts. Here Fukuyama shows in a logical manner that History of all countries is going to end when every country accepts liberal political democracy as the only true system of government. He is not asserting that events will stop from happening. The importance of science in development of societies is stressed upon several reasons.

Note: passages that are "in both quotations and italics" are quoted verbatim from the text. Other uses of italics are for emphasis, and other uses of quotations mark colloquial or informal usage. The triumph of Western-style liberal democracy combined with capitalism is not coincidence: it has philosophical roots. To survive, a governmental system must enjoy long-term legitimacy from the governed, and part of this requires observing the human need for thymos , or recognition of one's dignity. Arguments that liberal democracy is the best vehicle for economic development are easily refuted by example. There is a fundamental tension between thymos and any society that strives for universal equality; after all, many value recognition that they are superior to others, or strive to be superior to themselves, which requires them to strive for recognition of being superior to others; and recognition granted universally rather than selectively and by the state rather than by a small group whose opinions one holds in high regard does not satisfy thymos. However , liberal democracy and capitalism are best equipped to remain stable while seeking the balance point between material equality and satisfaction of thymos.

The End of History and the Last Man () is a book of political philosophy by American political scientist Francis Fukuyama which argues that with the.

Francis Fukuyama and the end of History

A modern alternative to SparkNotes and CliffsNotes, SuperSummary offers high-quality study guides that feature detailed chapter summaries and analysis of major themes, characters, quotes, and essay topics. Transform this Plot Summary into a Study Guide. This contrasts with the work of other theorists, especially socialists such as Karl Marx, who argued that current democracies would be replaced with socialist states that kept a firmer control over their economy. The End of History and the Last Man starts with a simple thesis. Fukuyama argues that the failure of communism and the subsequent disappearance of the Soviet Union from the global stage has resulted in the victory of liberal democracy and capitalism.

Until a few years ago, many argued that liberal democracy was the most just and attractive political regime. Now, as the tides of history are rapidly turning, the hypotheses of theory are being reversed. Indeed, some authors today predict that as the conditions that made liberal democracy possible fade away, it is likely to be supplanted by illiberal democracy, competitive authoritarianism, or outright dictatorship. Such conclusions risk being just as rash as the more optimistic ones that preceded them. U ntil a few years ago, the optimists reigned supreme.

Bring back ideology: Fukuyama's 'end of history' 25 years on

The End of History and the Last Man is a book of political philosophy by American political scientist Francis Fukuyama which argues that with the ascendancy of Western liberal democracy —which occurred after the Cold War — and the dissolution of the Soviet Union —humanity has reached "not just According to Fukuyama, since the French Revolution , liberal democracy has repeatedly proven to be a fundamentally better system ethically, politically, economically than any of the alternatives. The most basic and prevalent error in discussing Fukuyama's work is to confuse "history" with "events".

Бринкерхофф стоял точно завороженный и, не в силах унять дрожь, стукался лбом о стекло. Затем, охваченный паникой, помчался к двери. - Директор.

Я сказал ему, что японец отдал свое кольцо - но не. Да я бы ничего и не взял у умирающего.

Лампы, замигав, зажглись. Беккер поставил коробку на пол и подошел к столу. Наклонился и осмотрел пальцы левой руки. Лейтенант следил за его взглядом.

Взгляните. Офицер подошел к столу. Кожа на левой руке загорелая, если не считать узкой светлой полоски на мизинце. Беккер показал лейтенанту эту полоску.

 Вы хотите приделать к Цифровой крепости черный ход. Его слова встретило гробовое молчание. Хейл понял, что попал в яблочко. Но невозмутимость Стратмора, очевидно, подверглась тяжкому испытанию.

Беккер поднялся над безжизненным телом девушки.


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