Analysis And Evaluation Of Pumping Test Data Pdf

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The first edition of this book appeared as No.

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Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data.pdf

The first edition of this book appeared as No. The aims of ILRI are: collect information on land reclamation and improvement from all over the world; - To disseminate this knowledge through publications, courses, and consultancies; - To contribute - by supplementary research - towards a better understanding of the land and water problems in developing countries.

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher. This is the second edition of Analysis and Evaluation ofpumping Test Data. Readers familiar with the first edition and its subsequent impressions will note a number of changes in the new edition.

These changes involve the contents of the book, but not the philosophy behind it, which is to be a practical guide to all who are organizing, conducting, and interpreting pumping tests.

What changes have we made? In the first place, we have included the step-drawdown test, the slug test, and the oscillation test. We have also added three chapters on pumping tests in fractured rocks. This we have done because of comments from some of our reviewers, who regretted that the first edition contained nothing about tests in fractured rocks.

It would be remiss of us, however, not to warn our readers that, in spite of the intense research that fractured rocks have undergone in the last two decades, the problem is still the subject of much debate. What we present are some of the common methods, but are aware that they are based on ideal conditions which are rarely met in nature. All the other methods, however, are so complex that one needs a computer to apply them.

We have also updated the book in the light of developments that have taken place since the first edition appeared some twenty years ago. We present, for instance, a more modern method of analyzing pumping tests in unconfined aquifers with delayed yield. We have also re-evaluated some of our earlier field examples and have added several new ones. Another change is that, more than before, we emphasize the intricacy of analyzing field data, showing that the drawdown behaviour of totally different aquifer systems can be very similar.

It has become a common practice nowadays to use computers in the analysis of pumping tests. For this edition of our book, we seriously considered adding computer codes, but eventually decided not to because they would have made the book too voluminous and therefore too costly. Other reasons were the possible incompatibility of computer codes and, what is even worse, many of the codes are based on black box methods which do not allow the quality of the field data to be checked.

Interpreting a pumping test is not a matter of feeding a set of field data into a computer, tapping a few keys, and expecting the truth to appear. The only computer codes with merit are those that take over the tedious work of plotting the field data and the type curves, and display them on the screen. These computer techniques are advancing rapidly, but we have refrained from including them. Boonstra presents the most common well-flow equations in computerized form.

Our wish to revise and update our book could never have been realized without the support and help of many people. We are grateful to Mr. Hanneke Verwey to work on the book. We are also grateful to Brigadier Retired K. Ahmad, General Manager Water of the Water and Power Development Authority, Pakistan, for granting us permission to use pumping test data not officially published by his organization. We also express our thanks to D r J. Hendriks, Director of TLRI, who allowed the second author time to work on the book, and generously gave us the use of ILRIs facilities, including the services of Margaret Wiersma-Roche, who edited our manuscript and corrected our often wordy English.

We are indebted to Betty van Aarst and Joop van Dijk for their meticulous drawings, and to Trudy Pleijsant-Paes for her patience and perseverance in processing the words and the equations of the book. Boonstra, for his discussion of the three chapters on fractured rocks and his valuable contribution to their final draft.

We hope that this revised and updated edition of Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data will serve its readers as the first edition did. Any comments anyone would care to make will be received with great interest. Kruseman N.

Basic concepts and definitions Aquifer, aquitard, and aquiclude Aquifer types 1. Pumping tests The principle Preliminary studies Selecting the site for the well The well 2.

Their distance from the well 2. I Reporting 2. Confined aquifers Steady-state flow 3. Leaky aquifers Steady-state flow 4. Unconfined aquifers Unsteady-state flow 5. Bounded aquifers Bounded confined or unconfined aquifers, steady-state flow 6.

Wedge-shaped and sloping aquifers Wedge-shaped confined aquifers, unsteady-state flow 7. Anisotropic aquifers Confined aquifers, anisotropic on the horizontal plane 8.

Multi-layered aquifer systems Confined two-layered aquifer systems with unrestricted cross flow, unsteady-state flow 9. Uniformly-fractured aquifers, double-porosity concept Introduction Bourdet-Gringartens curve-fitting method observation wells Kazemis et al.

Introduction When working on problems of groundwater flow, the geologist or engineer has to find reliable values for the hydraulic characteristics of the geological formations through which the groundwater is moving. Pumping tests have proved to be one of the most effective ways of obtaining such values.

Analyzing and evaluating pumping test data, however, is as much an art as a science. It is a science because it is based on theoretical models that the geologist or engineer must understand and on thorough investigations that he must conduct into the geological formations in the area of the test.

It is an art because different types of aquifers can exhibit similar drawdown behaviours, which demand interpretational skills on the part of the geologist or engineer. We hope that this book will serve as a guide in both the science and the art. The equations we present in this book are from well hydraulics. We have omitted any lengthy derivations of the equations because these can be found in the original publications listed in our References.

With some exceptions, we present the equations in their final form, emphasizing the assumptions and conditions that underlie them, and outlining the procedures that are to be followed for their successful application. Hard rocks, both as potential sources of water and depositories for chemical or radioactive wastes, are receiving increasing attention in hydrogeology.

We shall therefore be discussing some recent developments in the interpretation of pumping test data from such rocks. This chapter summarizes the basic concepts and definitions of terms relevant to our subject. The next chapter describes how to conduct a pumping test.

The remaining chapters all deal with the analysis and evaluation of pumping test data from a variety of aquifer types or aquifer systems, and from tests conducted under particular technical conditions. An aquifer is defined as a saturated permeable geological unit that is permeable enough to yield economic quantities of water to wells.

The most common aquifers are unconsolidated sand and gravels, but permeable sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and limestone, and heavily fractured or weathered volcanic and crystalline rocks can also be classified as aquifers.

An aquitard is a geological unit that is permeable enough to transmit water in significant quantities when viewed over large areas and long periods, but its permeability is not sufficient to justify production wells being placed in it.

Clays, loams and shales are typical aquitards. An aquiclude is an impermeable geological unit that does not transmit water at all. Dense unfractured igneous or metamorphic rocks are typical aquicludes.

In nature, truly impermeable geological units seldom occur; all of them leak to some extent, and must therefore be classified as aquitards.

In practice, however, geological units The reader will note that the above definitions are relative ones; they are purposely imprecise with respect to permeability. A confined aquifer Figure 1. IA is bounded above and below by an aquiclude. In a confined aquifer, the pressure of the water is usually higher than that of the atmosphere, so that if a well taps the aquifer, the water in it stands above the top of the aquifer, or even above the ground surface.

We then speak of a free-flowing or artesian well. An unconfined aquifer Figure l. Its upper boundary is the watertable, which is free to rise and fall. Water in a well penetrating an unconfined aquifer is at atmospheric pressure and does not rise above the watertable.

A leaky aquifer Figure 1. Water is free to move through the aquitards, either upward or downward. If a leaky aquifer is in hydrological equilibrium, the water level in a well tapping it may coincide with the watertable.

The water level may also stand above or below the watertable, depending on the recharge and discharge conditions. In deep sedimentary basins, an interbedded system of permeable and less permeable layers that form a multi-layered aquifer system Figure ]. IE , is very common. But such an aquifer system is more a succession of leaky aquifers, separated by aquitards, rather than a main aquifer type. Most well hydraulics equations are based on the assumption that aquifers and aquitards are homogeneous and isotropic.

This means that the hydraulic conductivity is the same throughout the geological formation and is the same in all directions Figure Figure I. I Different types of aquifers A. Confined aquifer B. Unconfined aquifer C.

Leaky aquifers E. Multi-layered leaky aquifer. The individual particles of a geological formation, however, are seldom spherical so that, when deposited under water, they tend to settle on their flat sides.

Such a formation. This phenomenon is called anisotropy. The lithology of most geological formations tends to vary significantly, both horizontally and vertically.

Aquifer test

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Abstract: Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well. A kind of single well test,which is step-drawdown test used to determine the efficiency and specific capacity of the well, however in case of single well test it is possible to estimate Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the aim of this study is to analyze four pumping test data located in KAWRGOSK area by using cooper-Jacob's time drawdown approximation of Theis method to estimate the aquifer parameters, also in order to determine the reasons which are affecting the reliability of the Storativity value and obtain the important aspect behind that in practice. Keywords: aquifer parameters, single well test, Cooper-Jacob's straight line method 1. The most important method to estimate the aquifer parameters are testing with having observation well, but it's cost more than conducting pumping test without observation well which is called single well test, so that since the last decade there are many experiences that are tried to discover a method to estimate the aquifer parameters through analyze single well test data such as choi,Byung-soo, which tried to find out the Storativity by determining skin factor and effective wellbore storage, and the method of P. Ballukraya, et al, it derived an equation to estimate Storativity by recovery test, Also M. Razack, et al, tried to determine Transmissivity through specific capacity data, then Keith J.


more modern method of analyzing pumping tests in unconfined aquifers with Analyzing and evaluating pumping test data, however, is as much an art as a.


Aquifer test

In order to determine the groundwater resources and potentials of the Khanewal District of Pakistan, a geophysical method in combination with pumping test data were used. An analytical relationship between the aquifer parameters interpreted from surface geoelectrical method and pumping test was established in order to estimate aquifer parameters from surface measurements where no pumping tests exist. For the said purpose, 48 geoelectric investigations were carried out using Schlumberger vertical electrical sounding VES. Seven of the soundings were conducted where pumping tests had been carried out at borehole sites. The vertical electrical sounding stations were interpreted, and resistivities and thickness parameters were calculated.

Enable javascript in your browser's settings to view menus and other features on this site. A pumping test is a field experiment in which a well is pumped at a controlled rate and water-level response drawdown is measured in one or more surrounding observation wells and optionally in the pumped well control well itself; response data from pumping tests are used to estimate the hydraulic properties of aquifers, evaluate well performance and identify aquifer boundaries. Aquifer test and aquifer performance test APT are alternate designations for a pumping test.

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

The first edition of this book appeared as No. The production of the book was made possible by cooperation between the fol- lowing institutions:. The aims of ILRI are: - To collect information on land reclamation and improvement from all over the world; - To disseminate this knowledge through publications, courses, and consultancies; - To contribute - by supplementary research - towards a better understanding of the land and water. All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher.

The first edition of this book appeared as No. The aims of ILRI are: collect information on land reclamation and improvement from all over the world; - To disseminate this knowledge through publications, courses, and consultancies; - To contribute - by supplementary research - towards a better understanding of the land and water problems in developing countries. All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof may not be reproduced in any form without written permission of the publisher. This is the second edition of Analysis and Evaluation ofpumping Test Data. Readers familiar with the first edition and its subsequent impressions will note a number of changes in the new edition.

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

1 Introduction

Recently, composite analysis CA , which simultaneously analyzes all drawdown data from multiple observation wells, has been applied to determine the hydraulic parameters of an unconfined aquifer. Moench claimed that the value of specific yield S y determined from non-composite analysis nonCA is sometimes unrealistically low as compared with that obtained by water-balance calculation, and results from CA are better representative of aquifer properties than those from nonCA. The results show that the mean estimates of hydraulic conductivity and S y determined from CA are close to those determined from nonCA. In some cases the analysis based on CA also results in low estimates of S y as compared with those determined based on nonCA. A hypothetical case study is presented, which examines the effect of measurement errors on the estimated parameters. The results indicate that the CA method also gives poorer estimates of S y than the nonCA method if the pumping test data contain measurement errors.

Analysis and Evaluation of Pumping Test Data

An aquifer test or a pumping test is conducted to evaluate an aquifer by "stimulating" the aquifer through constant pumping , and observing the aquifer's "response" drawdown in observation wells. Aquifer testing is a common tool that hydrogeologists use to characterize a system of aquifers, aquitards and flow system boundaries.

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Pumping Tests

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Я, университетский профессор, - подумал он, - выполняю секретную миссию.

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