Dna And Rna Structure And Function Pdf

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dna and rna structure and function pdf

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DNA deoxyribonucleic acid is the genomic material in cells that contains the genetic information used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. DNA, along with RNA and proteins, is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for life.

However, whereas DNA molecules are typically long and double stranded, RNA molecules are much shorter and are typically single stranded. RNA molecules perform a variety of roles in the cell but are mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis translation and its regulation. RNA is typically single stranded and is made of ribonucleotides that are linked by phosphodiester bonds.

2.6: Structure and Function - Nucleic Acids

We've updated our Privacy Policy to make it clearer how we use your personal data. We use cookies to provide you with a better experience, read our Cookie Policy. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and Ribonucleic acid RNA are perhaps the most important molecules in cell biology, responsible for the storage and reading of genetic information that underpins all life. They are both linear polymers, consisting of sugars, phosphates and bases, but there are some key differences which separate the two 1. These distinctions enable the two molecules to work together and fulfil their essential roles. Before we delve into the differences, we take a look at these two nucleic acids side-by-side. Developments in Agrigenomics.

In this section, we will examine the structures of DNA and RNA, and how these structures are related to the functions these molecules perform. We will begin with DNA, which is the hereditary information in every cell, that is copied and passed on from generation to generation. The race to elucidate the structure of DNA was one of the greatest stories of 20th century science. Their famous paper, in the April 25, issue of Nature, opened the modern era of molecular biology. Arguably, that one-page paper has had more scientific impact per word than any other research article ever published. Today, every high school biology student is familiar with the double helical structure of DNA and knows that G pairs with C and A with T. The double helix, made up of a pair of DNA strands, has at its core, bases joined by hydrogen bonds to form base pairs - adenine always paired with thymine, and guanine invariably paired with cytosine.

However, whereas DNA molecules are typically long and double stranded, RNA molecules are much shorter and are typically single stranded. RNA molecules perform a variety of roles in the cell but are mainly involved in the process of protein synthesis translation and its regulation. RNA is typically single stranded and is made of ribonucleotides that are linked by phosphodiester bonds. A ribonucleotide in the RNA chain contains ribose the pentose sugar , one of the four nitrogenous bases A, U, G, and C , and a phosphate group. The subtle structural difference between the sugars gives DNA added stability, making DNA more suitable for storage of genetic information, whereas the relative instability of RNA makes it more suitable for its more short-term functions. The RNA-specific pyrimidine uracil forms a complementary base pair with adenine and is used instead of the thymine used in DNA.

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Ribonucleic acid RNA is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding , decoding , regulation and expression of genes. Along with lipids , proteins , and carbohydrates , nucleic acids constitute one of the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA mRNA to convey genetic information using the nitrogenous bases of guanine , uracil , adenine , and cytosine , denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C that directs synthesis of specific proteins. Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome. Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression , or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis , a universal function in which RNA molecules direct the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes. Analysis of these RNAs has revealed that they are highly structured.

DNA structure and function

RNA , abbreviation of ribonucleic acid , complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA deoxyribonucleic acid as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses. RNA consists of ribose nucleotides nitrogenous bases appended to a ribose sugar attached by phosphodiester bonds, forming strands of varying lengths. The ribose sugar of RNA is a cyclical structure consisting of five carbons and one oxygen.

NCBI Bookshelf. Molecular Cell Biology.

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DNA and RNA

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4 Comments

  1. Hayden N. 07.04.2021 at 17:21

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  2. Veronique C. 10.04.2021 at 04:31

    suggested several structural features of DNA DNA structure is often divided into four different The functions of the ribosomal RNA molecules in the ribosomal.

  3. Tiziana M. 11.04.2021 at 10:02

    Components and structure of the nucleic acids.

  4. Delaina S. 12.04.2021 at 23:14

    The structure and function of RNA This information is transmitted by transcription from DNA to RNA helixcwa13301.org​pdf.