Gamification In Theory And Action A Survey Pdf
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- Gamification in theory and action: A survey
- Towards a motivational design? Connecting gamification user types and online learning activities
- Self-Determined Gamification in an Online Web Portal
Gamification in theory and action: A survey
Print Send Add Share. Notes Abstract: This study sought to address a problem of practice by incentivizing job requirements through the addition of achievements in an online web portal.
To do this, a workplace analysis was conducted, along with a thorough review of relevant literature. The result was the creation of a framework for designing gamified systems entitled Self-Determined Gamification. Using this framework as a guide, an attempt was made to design achievements with Self-Determination Theory SDT in mind, paying particular attention to organizational goals, equity in attaining achievements, employee autonomy in interacting and engaging with the achievements, and individual goals.
With the design of the system as a major focus of this research, determining the success of the design in aligning with SDT considerations was important and this was accomplished through the use of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory IMI Survey within SDT.
Additionally, looking at performance indicators along with employee feedback about the achievements provided insight into the overall success of the design and future considerations. The gamification implementation had positive results with staff reporting enjoying the achievements and the impact they had on improving work habits.
Results from the IMI survey also indicated that the design of the achievements in the online web portal aligned with autonomous forms of motivation on the autonomy continuum within SDT. Analysis of performance metrics indicated improved performance across multiple performance indicators. This was particularly true in areas where employees had control in completing a job requirement and where employees had the opportunity to exceed performance expectations.
The Self-Determined Gamification framework developed in this study provides both a model for designing gamification rooted in design best practices and relevant theory, and a method for evaluating that design. General Note: Includes vita. Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references. Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Thesis: Thesis Ed. Without her standing by me every step of the way, I would never have pushed through the difficult times. When I wanted to quit, she listened and let me have that moment, day when I decided to keep going.
Thank you for listening to me when I needed to vent, for encouraging me when I needed a little push, and for helping me take time to step away from everything when I needed a break.
Kumar was also a constant source of support, both as my advisor during the first two years of the program and as my dissertation chair over the past year. Her advice and guidance steered me throug h the various IRB processes, helped me scale back when I tried to do too much, and kept me grounded as I moved through the entire process.
She maintained the perfect balance of being firm and direct about my writing and deadlines, while also being understa nding regarding life and career challenges. Above all, she kept me on track and made sure I continued writing as we moved through the qualifying exams, dissertation proposal, dissertation writing, a nd the actual defense.
I could not ask for a better person to help guide me through this process. My dissertation committee challenged me to look at things differently, offered support when I was unsure, and asked questions that made me think more deeply about my research. Being new to this process, I was nervous that a committee would feel like advers aries when it came to completing the dissertation. Instead, they were masters of their craft, who pushed me to be better as a researcher, as a professional, PAGE 5 5 and a student.
My dissertation is complete because of their guidance and advice. It is also complet e because they challenged me and pushed me to be at my best To my friends and family, who were incredibly understanding every time I had to cancel plans or miss out on an event. For all the times you looked at me with sympathy in your eyes, but also with pride, encouragement, and hope. For your continued support as I balanced the demands of school, a change in job function, and all the little life events that we never anticipate.
Behavior Engineering Model The behavior engineering model was developed by Gilbert The model evaluates the workplace environment and employee behavior to determine if sufficient supports and skills are present to optimize employee performance. Game Elements Aspects or chara cteristics of modern video games that are distinct enough to be repurposed in a gamification context.
Gamification The use of game elements in non game contexts, through a web interface, software application, or comparable system. Specifically, the framework looks at intentionally designing games with a mind towards diverse characteristics of players, along with th e overall user experience within a game. The theory looks at extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on a continuum and advocates moving away from controlling and high pressure forms of motivation.
This can be achieved by taking into account equity, organizational goals, individual goals, and autonomy. Web Portal In the context of this study, a web portal is an online environment where employee s engage with a variety of tools to complete and document completion of job responsibilities. All employee performance is tracked within the web portal. To do this, a workplace analysis was conducted, along with a thorough review of relevant literat ure.
The result was the creation of a framework for designing gamified systems entitled Self Determined Gamification. Using this framework as a guide, an attempt was made to design achievements with Self Determination Theory SDT in mind, paying particula r attention to organizational goals, equity in attaining achievements, employee autonomy in interacting and engaging with the achievements, and individual goals.
Additionally, looking at PAGE 17 17 performance indicators along with emplo yee feedback about the achievements provided insight into the overall success of the design and future considerations. The gamificat ion implementation had positive results with staff reporting enjoying the achievements and the impact they had on improving work habits Results from the IMI survey also indicated that the design of the achievements in the online web p ortal align ed with autonomous forms of motivation on the autonomy continuum within SDT A nalysis of perform ance metrics indicate d improved performance across multiple performance indicators This was particularly true in areas where employees had control in completing a job requirement and where employees had the opportunity to exceed performance expectations The Self Determined Gamification framework developed in this study provides both a model for designing gamification rooted in design best practices and relevant theory, and a method for evaluating that design.
Though video games were primarily seen as a source of entertainment, their popularity has led to an interest in repurposing the video game model within other contexts such as military train ing, education, and i ndustry Tobias et al.
The use of video games and video game components in other contexts resulted in a number of strategies and a consistent theme throughout these various game based strategies was a recognition that video gam es excel at engag ing end users.
As of , it was estimated that more than million people in the United States played video games for 13 hours or more per week McGonigal, ; as cited in Tobias et al. With this level of engagement, research ers and designers are attempting to harness the motivat ional components within games.
One of the game based strategies that emerged through reviewing the literature is conceptualized under the umbrella term, gamification. Gamification involves the use of game elements in non game contexts. As an example, Chore Wars is an application designed to encourage users to complete household chores by awarding experience points and the ability to level up an avatar after completing specific user defined, real world tasks McGon igal, In this case, the application is not a game, but instead represents a method of tracking the completion of chores.
G ame elements are incorporated in the form of points, avatars, PAGE 19 19 and leveling as a method of engaging users to partici pate in completing those chores. In addition, many of these early studies found positive results regarding motivation, engagement and user satis faction Hamari et al. These early results are encouraging and indicate that the incorporation of game elements in a system has the p otential to motivate end users.
At the same time, as a new field of study, there is a need within the current body of literature to incorporate design best practices and relevant theory when designing gamified systems Hamari et al. This dissertation builds on the efforts of existing gamification implem entations in an attempt to identify the most appropriate theory and design best practices, resulting in the Self Determined Gamification framework for the incorporation of game elements within a system At the same time, this dissertation investigates a pr oblem of practice within an online work environment and looks at the potential use of game elements based on the Self Determined Gamification framework to address that problem of practice Professional Context Techworks provides on site technology support and strategic planning to the Housing Department at a major university In total, Techworks supports approximately 8,2 00 residents and employees within the department Clients are s pread out across approximately 3 0 buildings, with departmental staff occupying 19 office locations.
Techworks also supports approximately permanent technology PAGE 20 20 installations, in addition to the thousands of devi ces residents bring to campus.
Specific examples of permanent technology installations supported within the hal ls include departmental desktop computers, digital signage, communal printers, HDTVs, and collaborative workstations. As the director of the Techworks program, the researcher oversee s a staff of three full time employees and 50 part time college student em ployees.
The part time college student employees are comprised of 46 student techs who provide on site technical support, and 4 s enior techs who supervise and ment or a subsection of their peers. Techworks student employees go through a comprehensive traini ng program and have access to training materials, documentation, and a variety of too ls within an online web portal.
Student employees live within the residence halls and help mainta in technology within the halls. Student employees are organized into regio ns, and are responsible for supporting both personal technology brought by residents and the permanent department owned technology installed within those regions.
Support of technology within the halls includes both proactive and reactive support. Proacti ve support is accomplished through weekly status checks of permanently installed technology, along with visiting each room on campus within a semester to check for any unreported technology issues. As an example, a proactive check of an HDTV in the halls w ould involve verifying functionality of HDMI and mini Display cables used to connect a laptop to the screen, checking to ensure that the cable channels are clear, verifying the presence of appropriate signage, and p hysically cleaning the screen.
Any issues with a proactive check of this kind are reported through the online web portal so they can be addressed befo re a client reports the issue. PAGE 21 21 Reactive support involves responding to client technology issues after they are reported. This support frequently in cludes helping clients set up devices to connect to the network or troubleshooting technolog y that is behaving irregularly.
As part of the Techworks Service Level Agreement SLA with the Housing Department student employees working for Techworks contact clients to schedule appointments within 24 hou rs of an issue being reported. Student employees put on two technology support events each week that rotate between the halls. Here, clients can get devices physically cleaned or report issues they are experien cing. Techworks student staff also provide technology for departmental events, consulting with clients about the event and se tting up technology as needed.
Supporting technology at departmental events typically includes setting up screens, projectors, spea kers, or video game systems. Problem of Practice Within Techworks student employees complete their work remotely and autonomously with minimal direct supervision and with communication ofte n taking place asynchronously.
Work is either completed or recorde d in an online web portal and all progress in performing job requirement s is tracked within the portal. Examples of student employee performance indicators completed within the web portal include posts to a technical forum and completion of assigned tasks such as updating the employee profile within the st aff directory.
Examples of student employee performa nce indicators that are recorded within the web portal include documenting reactive support tickets, documenting proactive equipment checklists, attendance at office shifts and attendance at required Techworks events.
For each performance area tracked in t he web portal, an example of both required performance and exemplary performance is identified and comm unicated to student employees.
Exemplary performance is based on student PAGE 22 22 employee performance in previous semesters and represents the best example of em ployee performance seen within a respective category over time Gilbert, As an example, Techworks organizes two mobile technology support sites each week that are rotated within the halls.
Student employees are required to participate at one support site during each two week interval, but can attend more than the required amount. Required performance is defined as attendance at seven events per semester, and exemplary performance is defined as attendan ce at ten events.
Other performance indicators re flect the quality of work, such as the number of positive customer service survey respons es a student employee receives.
Specific details about each performance indicator are provided in Chapter 5 The remote and unsupervised nature of the work required in Techworks creates unique challenges and student employee performance, in s ome cases, has become an issue. Here, the organization has historically seen a bell curve of performance where most student employees meet the required performance expectations, a s mall number of student employees exceed those expectations, and certain student employees fail to meet the re quired performance indicators.
Addressing the needs of student employees who fail to meet required performance indicators, where possible, in order to improve the overall customer experience is a primary concern within Techworks Each year, Techworks management attempts to improve the workplace environment to better align with employee needs in an environment where stude nt employees are unsupervised.
Existing student employees who do not meet required performance indicators represent the first problem of practice within Techworks PAGE 23 23 Within Techworks all employees must be active full time students in good academic standing. Good academic standing is de fined as maintaining a 2. In addition, student employees are required to be on campus resident s in order to work for Techworks Due to the transient nature of a college campus, Techworks student staff rotate on a cyclical basis of every thr ee to four years.
Each year Techworks hires 10 to 15 new employees as veteran sta ff graduate or move off campus. Training new staff each year and preparing staff for their job responsibilities represents a secondary problem of prac tice within Techworks A comprehensive training program has been developed over the course of Techworks year history that involves face to face instruction, mentor pairings, a nd regular on the job feedback.
All training materials are available online to employees within t he web portal. Open ended survey responses and face to face interviews with student employees who have failed to meet performance expectations have indicated issues of motivation, feelings of disconnect, and a need for more structure within the Techworks environment. Over several years, multiple tools were developed within the online web portal in an attempt to address feelings of disconnect and in an ef fort to provide more structure.
One example of a tool created to address these issues includes a reminde rs tool that automatically sends students a list of individual job requirements at the start of each week, along with du e dates for those requirements.
Another tool created provides students with an interactive, step by step checklist of what should be com pleted at each permanent technology installation during w eekly proactive status checks.
Towards a motivational design? Connecting gamification user types and online learning activities
Recent years have witnessed the arrival of new methodological horizons in teacher training. Technological resources and mobile connections play a major role in these studies. At the same time, there is a focus on play to increase commitment and motivation. It is in this context that gamification and flipped-classroom strategies have arisen. This paper presents the results of a training program with future Primary Education teachers using gamification and flipped-classroom strategies and techniques.
Theoretical findings suggest that gamification is a distinct concept. •. Conceptual foundations tend to converge on psychological theories of motivation. •. Early.
Self-Determined Gamification in an Online Web Portal
Compared to traditional persuasive technology and health games, gamification is posited to offer several advantages for motivating behaviour change for health and well-being, and increasingly used. Yet little is known about its effectiveness. We aimed to assess the amount and quality of empirical support for the advantages and effectiveness of gamification applied to health and well-being.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Human-Computer Studies journal homepage: www. Article history: Gamication has drawn the attention of academics, practitioners and business professionals in domains Received 10 January as diverse as education, information studies, humancomputer interaction, and health. As yet, the term Received in revised form remains mired in diverse meanings and contradictory uses, while the concept faces division on its 18 June academic worth, underdeveloped theoretical foundations, and a dearth of standardized guidelines for Accepted 26 September application. Despite widespread commentary on its merits and shortcomings, little empirical work has Communicated by K.
Print Send Add Share. Notes Abstract: This study sought to address a problem of practice by incentivizing job requirements through the addition of achievements in an online web portal. To do this, a workplace analysis was conducted, along with a thorough review of relevant literature.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Fels Published Computer Science Int.
Gamification refers to using game attributes in a non-gaming context. However, little is known about the concept of gamification and its possible working mechanisms. This review focused on empirical evidence for the effectiveness of gamification approaches and theoretical rationales for applying the chosen game attributes. We systematically searched multiple databases, and included all empirical studies evaluating the use of game attributes in health professions education. Of articles initially identified, 44 met the inclusion criteria.
Metrics details. A total of 86 students participated in the questionnaire in a cross-sectional study. The findings showed average agreement shares for all five gamification user types. The correlations revealed that the six online learning activities were at least significantly connected to one of the five gamification user types, and both person-centered and environment-centered perspectives were displayed. Finally, the results were discussed, and implications were derived for a motivational design.
Ей предстояло узнать это совсем. ГЛАВА 2 На высоте тридцать тысяч футов, над застывшим внизу океаном, Дэвид Беккер грустно смотрел в крохотный овальный иллюминатор самолета Лирджет-60. Ему сказали, что бортовой телефон вышел из строя, поэтому позвонить Сьюзан не удастся.
За едва заметным изгибом коридора Беккер услышал голоса. Он пошел на звук и уткнулся в стеклянную дверь, за которой, судя по доносящемуся оттуда шуму и гвалту, происходило нечто вроде драки. Преодолев отвращение, Беккер открыл дверь.
В главный банк данных попал вирус, - сказал Бринкерхофф. - Я знаю, - услышала Сьюзан собственный едва слышный голос. - Нам нужна ваша помощь. Она с трудом сдерживала слезы.
Как же так? - Сьюзан откинулась на спинку стула. - У нас внизу работают лучшие программисты в мире. И мы нашими совместными усилиями даже близко не подошли к математической функции меняющегося открытого текста.
На лице его появилось выражение животного страха. - Отпусти. - Мне нужен ключ, - повторила Сьюзан. - У меня его. Отпусти меня! - Он попробовал приподняться, но не смог даже повернуться.
За открытыми воротами виднелась площадь, на которой не было ни души, а за ней, вдали, - стены Санта-Круса. Беккер не мог исчезнуть, тем более так. Халохот оглядел дворик.