# Philosophy And Logic Textbook Pdf

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*The book covers the standard material for a first course in formal logic: central logical concepts validity, consistency, etc.*

*Dawson, Jr. The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v.*

## An Introduction to Formal Logic

The book covers the standard material for a first course in formal logic: central logical concepts validity, consistency, etc. Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less. It also contains several useful appendices and reference pages, as well as many good exercises some of which also have solutions in the back of the book, which is welcome.

The book is accurate. I especially appreciate the clear definitions of logical notions in terms of the formal semantics, e. Definitions like this make possible rigorous, informal reasoning from definitions; e. I think this is good practice for students, and I appreciate the clear and accurate definitions given in the book that make this possible. It doesn't contain any high tech new material in logic, but it covers the basics admirably. Since those basics are unlikely to change anytime soon, the book will continue to be relevant long into the future.

The book is very clear. Numerous good examples are given to explicate concepts along the way. As I remarked above, the definitions given are excellent, and this really enhances the overall clarity of the book. The book uses consistent terminology and notation. Quantifier symbols are upside-down A and backwards E, and atomic sentences of predicate logic are in the format Rab.

Script capital letters are employed for metatheoretic schemata. The book helpfully includes an appendix on alternate notational conventions. I wish I could rate this a 6 or higher. In addition to PDF format, the LaTeX source is available, which makes it relatively easy to "remix" the book to one's liking.

Many remixes of this book already exist in particular, I really like the Calgary Remix , and of course it is possible to make your own. This makes it possible to really tailor the book to the precise way in which you want to teach your course, removing extraneous material, and adding and rearranging material as needed on this point, see my next comment.

The book is well-organized, though it is not organized in the way that I would do it. Proof theory is saved for the last chapter, after formal semantics for FOL have already been introduced, and long after sentential logic is introduced. Personally, I prefer to introduce proof theory much sooner, and to split it into a module on sentential logic, and a module on FOL. I don't think either is necessarily better or worse; it's just a difference in approach. But, because the book is so modular see previous , it is easy for me to simply rearrange the material to my liking.

I found nothing objectionable in the book. A variety of examples are given, and when names are used, there seems to be a variety. This book is part of the Open Logic Project, which I cannot recommend highly enough. For the reasons I explain above, books in this project are, frankly, just better than commercially available logic textbooks. I would not even consider asking my students to pay for a logic textbook when freely available, modular logic textbooks of this quality exist.

The book is a fairly standard treatment of first-order logic sentential and predicate calculus. It covers all the usual bases. A number of more peripheral topics e. Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less. There is no index, but there is an appendix on alternate notation, which is a handy addition. The content of the book is more or less perennial: first-order classical logic has been with us for a long time, and it will remain with us for a long time to come.

The linguistic examples used in the book are fairly generic and will not require significant updating. The book is written in a very clear, concise, and readable style.

Technical terms of which there are many are well explained. There are no significant consistency issues, either conceptually or notationally. The author systematically lays out the semantics and syntax of sentential and quantificational logic SL and QL and develops a system of proof using natural deduction.

There are no alarms and no surprises, which is as it should be. The text is chunked into six chapters, none of which is inordinately long. Each chapter is divided into multiple sections, affording instructors the possibility of assigning part of a chapter rather than the whole chapter at one go. Given the nature of the topic, the material is cumulative, so there is a limit to which the chapters could be presented in a different order than the one established by the text.

But this should in no way be considered a fault of the book — it's a feature, not a bug. The organization of the book is clear and coherent, and the text as a whole flows well, both within and across chapters. This issue of interfacing does not really apply here, since the book contains no graphics apart from the occasional chart.

However, the book would benefit from the addition of more visual elements. The writing in the book is relatively free of grammatical or other mechanical writing errors. The prose is highly polished. There is nothing in the text to offend readers. There are examples of sentences with culturally diverse content, but there could be more.

Given that this is a text on formal logic, the main currency of which is expressions in formal rather than natural languages, this can't be considered a significant drawback.

This is a crisp, clear, and concise introduction to first-order classical logic, suitable for undergraduate students in philosophy, linguistics, and allied fields. It contains a minimum of jargon, and what jargon there is, is explained in an accessible way. The author's minimalist approach to the topic makes the book an appealing choice as an introductory text. This concise text accomplishes what it sets out to achieve. It manages to cover the material of sentential logic up through quantificational logic right up to the point of setting up the problem of completeness.

It does not include independent It does not include independent treatments of categorical logic, informal fallacies, or inductive logic, let alone other topics, but it is not designed to treat those topics. As it stands, it is suitable for a one-semester course on sentential and quantificational logic.

Some other details might be mentioned. For example, on page 6, the author offers exceedingly brief lists of premise and conclusion indicators. The instructor might feel the need to amplify these lists one way or the other. Further, on page 6, the author states that the conclusion comes at the end of the series of sentences that compose it. While this is obviously true for any argument that has been reworked so as to conform to the standard form, it is obviously not true of many arguments that appear in ordinary language contexts.

Minimally, one would expect some mention of soundness at least in this connection, as the book is a text on deductive logic. The book contains material highly relevant to the study of sentential and quantificational logic. The brief treatments of models and natural deduction are very helpful in how the author interrelates the two topics. His approach of introducing n-tuple predicate relations prior to quantifiers is refreshing and, I think, potentially helpful to the student.

One cannot envision the text becoming quickly outmoded or obsolete. As is true of many logic textbooks, one must already be a rather clear thinker in order to learn from it. However, it falls on the teacher to make the material more accessible during class discussion, albeit accessible to that degree that inherently difficult material permits.

The text is broken down into six chapters and thirty-four sections. It is highly adaptable to a variety of pedagogical plans. Each chapter, however, does build on the preceding. The topics of this text follow an excellent and, in my experience, a partially original design. The author moves back and forth between sentential and quantificational logic when this suits his presentation and the overall movement of the book is towards a comprehensiveness that does not leave any threads hanging.

There seems to be an error on the top of page , where the word 'define' seems out of place. There is one typo on page 80, where 'specific' presumably should be 'specify' and another of page 72 where 'if' should be 'is.

The text is of universal relevance as it treats of some of the basic forms of reasoning. As such, it is relevant in any cultural context. The book will be particularly useful for philosophy majors who need a textbook geared towards equipping them with a knowledge of some of the formal machinery of quantificational logic.

It is worth noting that 'Chapter 6' presents natural deduction in systemic fashion, laying out introduction and elimination rules relative to each of the basic operators before presenting derivative rules modus ponens, hyp. The text does not bother with some oft used forms, such as constructive dilemma and exportation. This textbook is a comprehensive overview of sentential logic and first order quantified logic. It begins by introducing basic notions such as the nature of arguments and deductive validity.

It continues by introducing the language of sentential It continues by introducing the language of sentential logic and then truth tables. It proceeds with a discussion of the language of quantified logic, and then follows this with a discussion of formal semantics. The book concludes by introducing a system for natural deduction.

Along the way it provides a number of practice problems with solutions to selected problems found in the back of the book. It also contains a helpful appendix giving an overview of logical symbols. As this is a more or less standard sort of textbook on propositional logic and predicate logic, there is not much danger that its content will become outdated.

Where textbooks like this sometimes seem dated is in the kinds of English sentences they use for translation exercises. But this textbook avoids using such potentially datable examples and updates to it could be made easily. The book is remarkably clear and accessible to individuals with no previous background in logic. In fact, I would rate it as giving the most lucid explanations of the concepts it covers that I have found to date.

## OER: Open Educational Resources

It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The issue of a logic foundation for African thought connects well with the question of method. Do we need new methods for African philosophy and studies? Or, are the methods of Western thought adequate for African intellectual space? These questions are not some of the easiest to answer because they lead straight to the question of whether or not a logic tradition from African intellectual space is possible.

This Undergraduate Textbook introduces key methods and examines the major areas of philosophy in which formal methods play pivotal roles. Coverage begins with a thorough introduction to formalization and to the advantages and pitfalls of formal methods in philosophy. The ensuing chapters show how to use formal methods in a wide range of areas. Throughout, the contributors clarify the relationships and interdependencies between formal and informal notions and constructions. Their main focus is to show how formal treatments of philosophical problems may help us understand them better. Formal methods can be used to solve problems but also to express new philosophical problems that would never have seen the light of day without the expressive power of the formal apparatus. This title offers an accessible introduction to this new interdisciplinary research area to a wide academic audience.

More broadly, logic is the analysis and appraisal of arguments. A good argument not only possesses validity and soundness or strength, in induction , but it also avoids circular dependencies , is clearly stated, relevant, and consistent ; otherwise it is useless for reasoning and persuasion, and is classified as a fallacy. In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words such as therefore , thus , hence , ergo , and so on. Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy since ancient times and mathematics since the midth century. More recently, logic has been studied in cognitive science , which draws on computer science , linguistics , philosophy and psychology , among other disciplines. A logician is any person, often a philosopher or mathematician, whose topic of scholarly study is logic. Philosophical logic is an area of philosophy.

## Introduction to Philosophy: Logic

Book Description: Introduction to Philosophy: Logic provides students with the concepts and skills necessary to identify and evaluate arguments effectively. The chapters, all written by experts in the field, provide an overview of what arguments are, the different types of arguments one can expect to encounter in both philosophy and everyday life, and how to recognise common argumentative mistakes. Cover art by Heather Salazar; cover design by Jonathan Lashley. What is an Open Textbook?

*Attribution CC BY. Introduction to Philosophy: Logic provides students with the concepts and skills necessary to identify and evaluate arguments effectively.*

Не успел он приняться за чтение отчета службы безопасности, как его мысли были прерваны шумом голосов из соседней комнаты. Бринкерхофф отложил бумагу и подошел к двери. В приемной было темно, свет проникал только сквозь приоткрытую дверь кабинета Мидж.

*Даже его безукоризненный лотос беспомощен перед эскадрильей вертолетов Агентства национальной безопасности. Сьюзан - это единственное, что не позволит Стратмору меня уничтожить.*

Он был известен среди сотрудников, он пользовался репутацией патриота и идеалиста… честного человека в мире, сотканном из лжи. За годы, прошедшие после появления в АНБ Сьюзан, Стратмор поднялся с поста начальника Отдела развития криптографии до второй по важности позиции во всем агентстве. Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха. Он редко встречался со Стратмором с глазу на глаз, но когда такое случалось, это можно было сравнить с битвой титанов.

Вы на чуть-чуть опоздали. - Ее слова словно повисли в воздухе. Все-таки он опоздал. Плечи Беккера обмякли.

*Прозвучал еще один выстрел. Он принял решение.*

Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее. Танкадо прошел проверку на полиграф-машине и пережил пять недель интенсивного психологического тестирования.