Advantages And Disadvantages Of Individual Decision Making Pdf
- and pdf
- Wednesday, April 7, 2021 3:47:03 AM
- 1 comment
File Name: advantages and disadvantages of individual decision making .zip
At first glance, individual decision-making in organizational behavior is just as simple as the phrase implies.
- Individual decision making
- Advantages and disadvantages of group decision-making
- Individual Decision Making - Pros and Cons
Individual decision making
Group decision-making is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives. Group decisions may involve assimilating a huge amount of information, exploring many different ideas, and drawing on many strands of experience. And the consequences of the right or wrong decision may be profound for the team and the organization. For obvious reasons, decisions made in groups can vary considerably from those undertaken by individuals. It is this potential divergence in outcomes that make group decision making attractive.
Group decision-making is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them. The decision is then no longer attributable to any single individual who is a member of the group. This is because all the individuals and social group processes such as social influence contribute to the outcome. The decisions made by groups are often different from those made by individuals.
There is much debate as to whether this difference results in decisions that are better or worse. According to the idea of synergy, decisions made collectively tend to be more effective than decisions made by a single individual. Factors that impact other social group behaviors also affect group decisions. Moreover, when individuals make decisions as part of a group, there is a tendency to exhibit a bias towards discussing shared information i.
Group decision making provides two advantages over decisions made by individuals: synergy and sharing of information. Synergy is the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. When a group makes a decision collectively, its judgment can be keener than that of any of its members.
Through discussion, questioning, and collaboration, group members can identify more complete and robust solutions and recommendations. The sharing of information among group members is another advantage of the group decision-making process. Group decisions take into account a broader scope of information since each group member may contribute unique information and expertise.
Sharing information can increase understanding, clarify issues, and facilitate movement toward a collective decision. One possible disadvantage of group decision making is that it can create a diffusion of responsibility that results in a lack of accountability for outcomes. In a sense, if everyone is responsible for a decision, then no one is.
Moreover, group decisions can make it easier for members to deny personal responsibility and blame others for bad decisions. Group decisions can also be less efficient than those made by an individual. Group decisions can take additional time because there is the requirement of participation, discussion, and coordination among group members. Without good facilitation and structure, meetings can be considered in trivial details that may matter a lot to one person but not to the others.
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. By isolating themselves from outside influences and actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints in the interest of minimizing conflict, group members reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints.
Managers in organizations often need to take the decision based on consensus. They need members of a team to discuss debate and decide on a mutually agreeable conclusion. Though group decision making is a powerful technique it has its own disadvantages as it is time-consuming.
Members may be unclear about their roles and if not handled well, there could be some bitter feelings between the members. Nevertheless, its advantages are more than the possible disadvantages. As all the members are involved in the process, it is likely to be accepted easily and members would be more willing and abiding by the decision taken.
Besides, there could be more generation of ideas with more information flow. Listed below are a few techniques that can assist managers in their efforts towards arranging a meeting for the purpose of group decision making. Brainstorming is a process for developing creative solutions to problems. This technique was developed by Alex Osborn a partner in an agency. It is a popular method for encouraging creative thinking in groups of about 8 people. Alex Faickney Osborn, an advertising manager, popularized the method in in his book, Applied Imagination.
Ten years later, he proposed that teams could double their creative output with brainstorming. Simply brainstorming is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the development of creative alternatives.
It is a combination of group problem solving and discussions. It works on die belief that the more the number of ideas, the greater the possibility of having a solution to the problem that is acceptable to all. It starts with the group generating ideas which are then analyzed, with action points based on the discussions. Brainstorming works by focusing on a problem, and then deliberately coming up with as many solutions as possible and by pushing the ideas as far as possible.
Another technique is the nominal group technique NGT , which is a group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making. The nominal group technique restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process, hence, the term nominal. Group members are all physically present, as in a traditional committee meeting, but members operate independently. Specifically, a problem is presented and then the following steps take place:.
The chief advantage of the nominal group technique is that it permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking, as does the interacting group. The initial stage of the technique gives each individual a chance to state his opinion on what the solution should be.
Duplicate solutions are then eliminated from the pool, leaving only original solutions behind. The individuals then rank the remaining solutions according to numerical preference. All of these preferences are tallied and considered to render the most accurate results. The most recent approach to group decision making blends the nominal group technique with sophisticated computer technology. It is a meeting in which members interact by a computer, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregating of votes.
Once the technology is in place, the concept is simple. Issues are. Individual comments, as well as aggregates votes, are displayed on a projection screen. It also allows people to be brutally honest without penalty.
Each individual can cast one vote at a time. The other team members do not know the owner of the ideas. The facilitator then collects all the inputs and circulates them among others for modifying or improving them. This process continues until a final decision is made. Delphi technique was originally developed by Rand Corporation as a method to systematically gather the judgments of experts for use in developing forecasts. It is designed for a group that does not meet face-to-face.
The Delphi method is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After recruiting participants, the manager develops a questionnaire for them to complete.
The questionnaire is relatively simple which contains straightforward questions that deal with the issue, trends in the area, new technological developments, and other factors the manager is interested in.
This cycle may be repeated as many times as necessary to generate the information the managers need. It is useful when experts are physically dispersed, anonymity is desired, or the participants are known to have trouble communicating with one another because of extreme differences of opinion.
On the other hand, the technique eliminates the often fruitful results of direct interaction among group members. Some face-to-face decision taking groups converge too quickly on one alternative while overlooking others.
The dialectic decision method DDM , which traces its roots to Plato and Aristotle, offers a way of overcoming these problems. The dialectic process begins with a clear statement of a problem to be solved. Then two or more competing proposals are generated. A key step follows in which participants identify the explicit or implicit assumptions that underlie each proposal. The group then breaks into advocacy subgroups, which examine and argue the relative merits of their positions.
Then the entire group makes a decision based on the competing presentations. This decision may mean embracing one of the alternatives, forging a compromise from several ideas, or generating a new proposal.
The merits of DDM include a better understanding of the proposals, their underlying premises, and their pros and cons by the participants. Members are also likely to feel more confident about the choice they made. Disadvantages include the propensity to forge a compromise in order to avoid choosing sides and the tendency to focus more on who were the better debaters than what the best decision should be.
Advantages and disadvantages of group decision-making
Group decision-making is a process where an assembly of people convene to analyse problems or situations, evaluate alternative actions and reach solutions. Decisions may concern the judgement of a particular course of action, how best to solve a problem or the determination of the direction or magnitude of work ahead performed by teams or individuals. Deciding the best course of action can range in perplexity, depending on the effectiveness of how that group functions, the quality of alternatives that are generated, the amount of access to correct and adequate information and their understanding of the problem. Where time is of the essence and also befits the personification of money, it is customary for a business or organisation to engage in Group Decision-Making processes in the attempt to effectively and efficiently solve problems. Though some methods are more time-consuming some others. The group leader usually reserves judgement on which method is used in the Group Decision-Making process, because if one assembled a group to make a decision on what method should be used, what method would one use to decide?
Individuals have a tendency to think and question before performing. Individual decision making has certain pros and cons, few of which are mentioned below:. An individual generally makes prompt decisions. While a group is dominated by various people, making decision-making very time consuming. Moreover assembling group members consumes lot of time. Individuals do not escape responsibilities.
Advantages of Centralization. Rational and Incremental Policy Making An analysis of rational and incremental approaches to policy development and implementation. Similarly, in a centralized government structure, the decision-making authority is concentrated at the top, and all other lower levels follow the directions coming from the top of the organization structure. Rational decisions seek to optimize or maximize utility. Group decision making is the process of arriving at a judgment based upon the feedback of multiple individuals.
Pros of Individual Decision Making · An individual generally makes prompt decisions. · Individuals do not escape responsibilities. · Individual decision making saves.
Individual Decision Making - Pros and Cons
Individuals in organizations make decision. The optimizing decision maker is rational. Middle — and mower — level managers determine production schedules, select new employees, and decide how pay raises are to be allocated. The making of decisions, however, is not the sole province of managers. No managerial employees also make decisions that after their jobs and the organizations they work for.
Decision making is simply a process used by managers in taking action for solving the problem. It is an integral part of the management system of a company which aims at improving efficiency. Decision making is the one through which managers are able to take right decisions at right time. Taking decisions is the core part of every organization management team. If any decision is taken wrong then it would be having negative consequences on the organisation.
Group decision-making is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives. Group decisions may involve assimilating a huge amount of information, exploring many different ideas, and drawing on many strands of experience. And the consequences of the right or wrong decision may be profound for the team and the organization.
When It Comes to Decision Making, Are Two Heads Better Than One?
Беккер осмотрел свой бок. На рубашке расплывалось красное пятно, хотя кровотечение вроде бы прекратилось. Рана была небольшой, скорее похожей на глубокую царапину. Он заправил рубашку в брюки и оглянулся. Позади уже закрывались двери. Беккер понял, что, если его преследователь находится внутри, он в западне.
Пистолет выпал из его рук и звонко ударился о камень. Халохот пролетел пять полных витков спирали и замер. До Апельсинового сада оставалось всего двенадцать ступенек. ГЛАВА 101 Дэвид Беккер никогда не держал в руках оружия. Сейчас ему пришлось это сделать. Скрюченное тело Халохота темнело на тускло освещенной лестнице Гиральды. Беккер прижал дуло к виску убийцы и осторожно наклонился.
- Вы отправили его в Испанию? - В ее голосе послышались сердитые нотки. - Зачем. Стратмор казался озадаченным.
Затем ярко вспыхнул и выключился. Сьюзан Флетчер оказалась в полной темноте. Сьюзан Флетчер нетерпеливо мерила шагами туалетную комнату шифровалки и медленно считала от одного до пятидесяти. Голова у нее раскалывалась.
Нам необходимо число, - напомнил Джабба. - Шифр-убийца имеет цифровую структуру. - Тихо, - потребовал Фонтейн и повернулся к Сьюзан. - Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути.
- Я… я… - Совсем растерявшись, он сел на край постели и сжал руки. Кровать застонала под его весом. - Простите.