Turkey And Arab Spring Pdf

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It has been almost five years now since a new collective consciousness of Arab masses transformed the political landscape of the Middle East and North Africa. In just a short period of time, the people of the Arab world protested against their rulers, putting an end to long-time authoritarian leaders in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, while bringing others to the eve of collapse.

Year , Volume 16 , Issue 3, Pages 93 - Zotero Mendeley EndNote. Abstract It is sometimes argued that Turkish foreign policy under the AK Party government reflects its ideology, and Turkish foreign policy towards the Middle East is often used as an illustration of this influence. When it is closely examined, however, one can easily see that the government has often followed a mainly realist foreign policy approach in the Middle East and used the idealism for the maximization of Turkish national interests. In contrast to the power resources at the disposal of other regional powers, including the support of external powers, sectarian identities, or ethnic-linguistic ties, the key asset of Turkish foreign policy is its successful combination of democracy and Islam.

Turkey, the Arab Spring and Beyond - E-bog

JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Turkish foreign policy after the 'Arab Spring': from agenda-setter state to agenda-entrepreneur state. Yazar Ozpek, Burak Bilgehan. Instead of preserving the status quo, Ankara has turned to a revisionist state that has begun to threaten Middle Eastern governments.

The debates particularly focus on the political and strategic preferences that Turkey has been embracing during and after the Arab Spring, which dramatically altered the geopolitical complexities of the regional and international politics. Despite its completely new promise given to the wider region in terms of the democratic consolidation of the old regimes and the strategic restoration of the traditional power politics in the Middle East and North Africa, it is true that the Arab Spring brought about a critical challenge for Turkey. In the new political environment of the post-Arab spring, the real challenge for Turkey will be the question of whether Ankara can deliver the daunting task of reinstituting peaceful order in the region. Therefore, one question is of particular importance in order to understand how Turkey will respond to the challenges that have arisen recently: has Turkey reached the limits of its power capabilities in the Middle East? Three Challenges for TFP.

The wave began when protests in Tunisia and Egypt toppled their regimes in quick succession, inspiring similar attempts in other Arab countries. The first demonstrations took place in central Tunisia in December , catalyzed by the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi , a year-old street vendor protesting his treatment by local officials. The Tunisian government attempted to end the unrest by using violence against street demonstrations and by offering political and economic concessions. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali to step down and flee the country on January 14, In October , Tunisians participated in a free election to choose members of a council tasked with drafting a new constitution. A democratically chosen president and prime minister took office in December , and a new constitution was promulgated in January In October—November , Tunisia became the first country of the Arab Spring protests to undergo a peaceful transfer of power from one democratically elected government to another.

Arab Spring

Especially in its ability to influence outcomes in Syria, but also in its reading of regional dynamics in general, Turkey finds itself consistently outmaneuvered by other regional powers like Russia and Iran with longer standing interests in the Middle East. Furthermore, the convergence between the positions of Turkey and the West on Syria, when so explicitly pitted against the Russian position whether or not by design , recalls to mind Cold War dynamics where Turkey was hardly more than an extension of the United States in terms of its role in the region. In other words, Turkey may finally be in the big leagues, but it is also dangerously close to a strikeout. That this would be so despite the economic, political, and social strides Turkey has made over the last decades would make such an outcome an even worse failure than it was in the past. This is also bad news for the United States and the EU, because a Turkey perceived not to be autonomous will have no credibility at all in the Middle East and hence will be entirely useless as a middleman between the West and the region. More PDF.

Turkey redefined its geographical security environment over the last decade by deepening its engagement with neighboring regions, especially with the Middle East. The Arab spring, however, challenged not only the authoritarian regimes in the region but also Turkish foreign policy strategy. This strategy was based on cooperation with the existing regimes and did not prioritize the democracy promotion dimension of the issue. The upheavals in the Arab world, therefore, created a dilemma between ethics and self-interest in Turkish foreign policy. The central argument of the present paper is that Turkey could make a bigger and more constructive impact in the region by trying to take a more detached stand and through controlled activism. Thus, Turkey could take action through the formation of coalitions and in close alignments with the United States and Europe rather than basing its policies on a self-attributed unilateral pro-activism.

While these problems have traditionally been regarded as domestic matters, this book highlights their increasingly regional dimension and the implications for the foreign affairs of Turkey and countries in the Middle East. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. About About this book Chapters Table of contents 14 chapters About this book Introduction This volume examines contemporary political relations between Turkey and the Middle East.

Turkey’s Relations with the Middle East

It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living , starting with protests in Tunisia. The importance of external factors versus internal factors to the protests' spread and success is contested. In many countries, governments shut down certain sites or blocked Internet service entirely, especially in the times preceding a major rally. The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid, as many Arab Spring demonstrations met with violent responses from authorities, [8] [9] [10] as well as from pro-government militias, counter-demonstrators, and militaries.

 - Я вам так признательна. Я так хочу выбраться отсюда. Беккер легонько обнял .

 У нас есть время, но только если мы поспешим, - сказал Джабба.  - Отключение вручную займет минут тридцать. Фонтейн по-прежнему смотрел на ВР, перебирая в уме остающиеся возможности.

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Фонтейн молча обдумывал информацию. - Не знаю, ключ ли это, - сказал Джабба.  - Мне кажется маловероятным, что Танкадо использовал непроизвольный набор знаков. - Выбросьте пробелы и наберите ключ! - не сдержался Бринкерхофф. Фонтейн повернулся к Сьюзан. - Как вы думаете, мисс Флетчер.

 Вы похожи на полицейского. - Слушай, парень, я американец из Мериленда. Если я и полицейский, то уж точно не здешний, как ты думаешь. Эти слова, похоже, озадачили панка. - Меня зовут Дэвид Беккер.

Стратмор задумался над ее словами, затем покачал головой: - Пока не стоит. ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает пятнадцать часов. Пусть пройдут все двадцать четыре часа - просто чтобы убедиться окончательно. Сьюзан это показалось разумным. Цифровая крепость впервые запустила функцию переменного открытого текста; быть может, ТРАНСТЕКСТ сумеет взломать шифр за двадцать четыре часа. Но честно говоря, она в это уже почти не верила.

Arab Spring

Сьюзан и Стратмор в недоумении посмотрели друг на друга. - Что это? - вскрикнула Сьюзан между сигналами. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся! - сказал Стратмор.

Партнер Танкадо обнаружен. Сьюзан замолчала. Танкадо мертв. Как это удобно. Вспомнив всю услышанную от шефа ложь, она похолодела и посмотрела на него, в глазах ее мелькнуло подозрение.

Впервые за много лет он вынужден был признать, что жизнь - это не только служение своей стране и профессиональная честь. Я отдал лучшие годы жизни своей стране и исполнению своего долга. А как же любовь. Он слишком долго обделял .

Но это не все, сэр. Я запустил антивирус, и он показывает нечто очень странное. - Неужели? - Стратмор по-прежнему оставался невозмутим.

Быстрее. Беккер повернулся и побежал, но успел сделать только один шаг. Мужчина выхватил оружие и выстрелил. Острая боль обожгла грудь Беккера и ударила в мозг.

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