Ac Motor Control And Electric Vehicle Applications Pdf

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AC Motor Control and Electric Vehicle Applications By Kwang Hee Nam

To meet HEV's fast torque response, vector control algorithm based on rotor flux-oriented and simulation model is concerned and modular designs for controller's hardware and software are presented in the paper in order to build a platform to achieve the vector control of asynchronous induction motor. Analyze the controller's electromagnetic compatibility, introduce the corresponding antijamming measures to assure the normal operation of the electromagnetic sensitive devices such as CAN bus; experiment proves that the measure is practical and feasible.

On the basis of the control logic correct, such as improving CAN bus communication reliability, assuring power-on sequence and fault treatment, carry on the motor bench experiment, test its static properties, and adjust the controller parameters. The experimental results show that the designed driving system has the performance of low speed and high torque, a wide range of variable speed and high comprehensive efficiency.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV is the vehicle with two or more power supplies one of these is electrical energy [ 1 , 2 ], such as unit of internal combustion engine and secondary cell or unit of fuel cell and secondary cell.

At present, developing HEV research is one of the most meaningful ways to solve the problems of pollution and energy. Currently, the control methods of AC asynchronous induction motor in HEV are mainly two kinds of direct torque control and vector control [ 6 ]. In the low speed, direct torque control is easy to produce torque fluctuation and no closed-loop current and is easy to produce over-current, which cannot meet the requirements of high stability torque when the vehicle is in the low-speed climbing state, at the same time there are the problems of motor temperature rise and high noise.

In addition, vector control can achieve a fixed switching frequency PWM modulation and reduce the harmonic content of the motor current, which, to a certain extent, reduce the motor temperature rise and noise.

Therefore, this paper introduces the vector control algorithm based on the rotor flux linkage oriented and conducts research to design the motor controller of Hybrid Electric Vehicle with high performance, high efficiency, and high reliability.

Finally, carry out the motor bench experiment on the basis of the control logic correct, such as improving the CAN bus communication reliability, ensuring the power-on sequence, and fault treatment, and complete the performance experiment of the motor drive system.

In terms of AC asynchronous motor, the current, voltage, magnetic flux and electromagnetic torque are interrelated. The basic idea of vector control [ 7 , 8 ] uses the mathematical coordinate transformation method to transform current , , of AC three-phrase winding , , to , of two-phrase static winding , , once again by mathematical coordinate transformation transform , to direct current , of two-phrase rotating winding ,.

In essence, through mathematical coordinate transformation transform stator current of AC asynchronous motor into two components, one is excitation component which is used to generate rotating magnetic potential, and another is torque component which is used to generate electromagnetic torque, as shown in Figure 1. Adjusting can adjust the strength of the magnetic field, and adjusting can adjust the size of torque in the constant magnetic field. Transform static three-phrase coordinate system , , into static two-phrase coordinate system - Take axis to be coincident with axis, the effective turn of each phrase in the three-phrase winding is , the effective turn of each phrase in the two-phrase winding is ,.

In order to facilitate the inverse transform, add an imaginary zero axis current , and , is an undetermined constant. Take the principle that the total magnetic potential and total power are permanent before and after transformation, there is. Transform rotating two-phrase coordinate system into static two-phrase coordinate system. Rotating two-phrase coordinate system are represented by axis and axis which are perpendicular to each other, the angle between axis and axis is , the rotating speed of - axis is , , then there is.

Define stator current , , , rotor current , , , stator flux linkage , , , rotor flux linkage , ,. The motor equations in different coordinate system are shown as follows. Because the stator turns are equivalent to rotor turns after conversion,. There is equation of voltage where denotes voltage, denotes , and , respectively, denote the resistance of stator winding and rotor winding.

There is equation of torque. On the condition that the current is constant and only mechanical displacement changes, electromagnetic torque is equivalent to the partial derivative of the magnetic field energy to mechanical angular displacement.

Equation of motion is where denotes load torque and denotes moment of inertia of units. In order to calculate conveniently, let and be, respectively, coincident with and which are, respectively, known as and axes. Let be the synchronous angular velocity of the stator frequency, rotational speed of axis relative to axis, and rotational speed of axis relative to axis. The equation of flux linkage is where denotes mutual inductance of stator winding and rotor winding and , denotes self-inductance of stator winding and , and denotes self-inductance of rotor winding and.

Equation of voltage is Equation of torque is Equation of motion is same with formula 2. Equation of Asynchronous Motor in - Coordinate System In order to make the system decoupling, define that axis is coincident with the direction of rotor flux linkage vector which is entitled axis. The axis being perpendicular to is axis which is entitled axis. Assuming an equal number of turns of the winding, we can eliminate the number of turns in the magnetic potential and the magnetic potential can be marked as vector , that is, stator current and stator magnetic potential are only same with the direction of magnetic potential.

Transform , in formula 2. Due to axis on axis, , , the new equation of flux linkage is Given the characteristics that the terminal voltage of the cage asynchronous motor is zero, formula 2. By formula 2. Similarly, there is. Regarding the equation of torque, the solution of simultaneous formula 2. How to get the direction of rotor flux linkage vector is one of the technical difficulties of vector control algorithm of asynchronous motor.

Then according to the coordinate conversion of formulas 2. Take the error between and as the input of PI controller, through the set proportion parameter , integral parameter and torque amplitude limiter calculate the torque given value. The calculated module through the component of stator current magnetic flux and torque: based on vector control system of rotor flux-oriented design, so flux linkage introduces open-loop control, in the steady state, there is Thereby, according to the set flux linkage calculate the magnetic flux component of stator current.

Then, according to the given torque of the module of rotational speed controller and the given flux linkage, by the equation of torque control of formula 2. The control module of current hysteresis loop: draw a comparison between the given value of stator three-phrase current and actual value and obtain a deviation, the deviation passes the high-gain amplifier with hysteresis loop character, that is, the hysteresis loop comparator DHC, and compares with the set maximum current deviation to control the make-and-break of two of the upper and lower bridge arm of each phrase of inverter.

Make the actual current continually track the waveform of the given current and fluctuate only in the range of deviation. Figure 2 is no-load startup and waveform of rotor palstance when time is the first second adding 50 load. We can see when the motor load changes the speed responses very quickly, and the system has good dynamic following and reaches the stable state quickly, which proves the feasibility of oriented vector control based on rotor flux linkage.

Asynchronous induction motor parameters: rated power , rated current , rated speed , rated torque. The hardware structure of motor controller is shown in Figure 3 , mainly including the following. The isolation of analog signal uses the precise capacitive isolation amplifier ISO Controller software mainly uses C language and assembly language to develop under the MPLABC30 environment, of which the main program, interrupt handling, CAN communication program use C language, because C language makes the whole process frame structure clear, easy debugging, and maintenance, in line with the concept of structural process design.

The related core algorithm like vector control algorithm completely uses the assembly language, which can optimize the code structure, significantly reduce the process running time, improve operating efficiency, and ensure real-time control. The flow of the main function is shown in Figure 4. The controller is electrified to carry out the main function. At the same time, momentarily respond the interrupt, complete the update of vector control parameters and the communication of CAN with power train controller.

Compared with the traditional vehicle, HEV has the following characteristics in the control aspect. The control objects are more decentralized, data exchange between the various units is more frequent, and the requirements of reliability and real-time of data exchange are higher.

Hence, it is necessary to introduce the simple, efficient, and reliable communication in the HEV. CAN bus, a serial bus, have the merits of simple structure, fault-tolerant capability, technical maturity, and so forth, which is widely used in the field of automotive electronic control.

HEV needs more equipments and higher coordination control, therefore, the use of CAN bus achieving in-vehicle network system is a good solution.

The power module, insulated gate bipolar transistor IGBT, is widely used in the inverter, which is a dual current-carrying device and whose switching characteristics are controlled by the gain of PNP transistor. In addition, the number of automotive electronic equipment increases day by day, which make the electromagnetic environment of the HEV complex and poor. The experimental results indicate that the antijamming measures are practical and the system operates well.

The in-vehicle network system of HEV of this project is composed of two major parts, which are connected by the protocol interconnection component and consist of unitive CAN bus network.

The basic structure is shown in Figure 5. The first part includes three node controllers, that is, motor controller, vehicle controller, and battery management system.

Each node controller can independently accomplish the function of command decomposition and transfer bottom layer instruction. The second part includes body measurement and control points, such as car door, ceiling, seat, and the temperature control point, meanwhile include the communication among engine, ABS, and transmission and transfer the data to automobile instrument assembly.

The protocol interconnection component: this part is responsible for the connection of the above two parts. Although these two major parts use the CAN bus network and their physical layer and partial data link layer are established on the CAN2.

Therefore, introduce the protocol interconnection component to connect the bus protocol of the two segments so as to consist of unitive bus control network. Obviously, the CAN bus network system is very important, in relation to vehicle safe information, such as EMS, ABS, and other related information, must be timely, reliable transmission. Due to covering the entire body, its performance and reliability directly involve the normal work of the entire automotive.

Analysis of the source of electromagnetic interference and its propagation path is very important for solving the problem of system electromagnetic compatibility.

After using the conventional antijamming measures, CAN bus system can be normal communication. This indicates that when the inverter operates under the rated conditions, there will be a very strong electromagnetic interference which seriously affects the normal communication of the CAN bus system by conduction and radiation.

The experiment shows that the main sources of electromagnetic interference include the following aspects. Differential Mode Interference Make the bus bar as the interference of shuttle route, which forms the loop through bus bar, battery, and inverter.

By the high frequency equivalent circuit of the three-phrase inverter, when IGBT switch acts form a kind of differential mode interference source [ 12 ], which returns to battery through bus bar. Besides, when the motor is high frequency voltage, the stator coil will produce voltage peak, which forms another differential mode voltage through bus bar [ 13 ]. Both measure battery terminal voltage and motor phase voltage and carry on Fourier transformation and compare or use the linear impedance stabilization network series in the bus bar can analyze the two differential mode interferences.

Its propagation path is shown in Figure 6. When the IGBT switch acts, there will be not only differential mode interference voltage but also common mode interference voltage [ 12 ]. The common mode interference voltage, through the parasitic capacitance of IGBT base relative to the radiator, forms the common mode interference current flowing to the chassis.

Besides, form the voltage peak in the stator coil, at the same time induce the shaft bearing voltage, which produces the shaft bearing current flowing to the chassis through the motor shaft, thus form another common mode interference current [ 13 ]. Measure the current and carry on Fourier transformation, obtain its propagation path as shown in Figure 7. The experiment shows that around the inverter and the entire chassis the radiation intensity is very high, even when two vehicles approach, the electromagnetic radiation level will intensify.

Because the differential mode interference formed in the inverter radiate energy to the surrounding space, and because the common mode current flowing to the chassis forms the current loop on its surface due to the conductor skin effect, there will be very strong electromagnetic interference. Obviously, the best way to suppress the radiation interference is to weaken the intensity of differential mode and common mode interference.

In addition, when the generator commutation or load current change suddenly, there will be electromagnetic wave. The switching frequency, the multiples of switching frequency, and high frequency harmonic of the PWM signal will produce radiation interference.

Practice shows that the occurrence of any electromagnetic interference must have three elements of interference source, propagation path, and sensitive devices. Any element is weakened or lost, the problem of electromagnetic interference will be improved or solved.

Based on the above analysis, we take the following antijamming measures. Attenuation of Differential Mode Interference and Radiation Interference Introduce the multilayer printed power circuit board to suppress the differential mode interference in the inverter and the corresponding electromagnetic radiation. By formula 4. All of the interference due to conductor skin effect flow from the conductor surface where denotes the interference frequency, denotes the permeability of copper, , denotes the electrical conductivity of copper,.

Thus, the effect of traditional filter with lumped parameter circuit model is not good.

AC motor control and electric vehicle applications

This platform has been designed to help you to achieve your business goals. We will provide end-to-end support from prototyping to production-grade projects related to the Electric Vehicle EV product development. Speed control, torque control and Field weakening features to achieve higher speed. Regenerative Braking achieved by voltage boost using Software Algorithm with the help of inverter and motor setup. Vinu is always ready to take on new challenges.

An electric vehicle EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels , fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. Commonly, the term EV is used to refer to an electric car.

An electric vehicle EV is a vehicle that uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery , solar panels , fuel cells or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs first came into existence in the midth century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. Modern internal combustion engines have been the dominant propulsion method for motor vehicles for almost years, but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and smaller vehicles of all types. Commonly, the term EV is used to refer to an electric car. In the 21st century, EVs have seen a resurgence due to technological developments, and an increased focus on renewable energy and the potential reduction of transportation's impact on climate change and other environmental issues.

Electric vehicle

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between the motor's magnetic field and electric current in a wire winding to generate force in the form of torque applied on the motor's shaft. There are two main groups of electrical motors: DC and AC motors. Electric motor control Application Note 3 V1.

The request for more efficient systems , to cope with demanding emissions regulations, is pushing to replace engine powered components such as fluid pumps and Air Conditioning with electric motors that can be driven now in a smarter way :. ST is definitely the right partner with whom to develop reliable and cost-effective solutions for automotive motor control applications. This browser is out of date and not supported by st. As a result, you may be unable to access certain features. Consider that modern browsers:.

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Brushless DC motor has simple structure, great power density, torque output and high efficiency. It has a broad application prospect for electric vehicle. The conventional scheme of BLDCM drive system adopts motor ontology, power drive circuits and position sensor. Due to its structure and commutation strategy, it has many problems to be solved if works on electric vehicle. The basic operating principle of Brushless DC motor and the basic power drive system was discussed. In addition, investigated the torque ripple, flux-weakening speed control and brake energy regeneration for electric vehicle.

An overview of current thermal challenges in transport electrification is introduced in order to underpin the research developments and trends of recent thermal management techniques. Currently, explorations of intelligent thermal management and control strategies prevail among car manufacturers in the context of climate change and global warming impacts. Therefore, major cutting-edge systematic approaches in electrified powertrain are summarized in the first place. In particular, the important role of heating, ventilation and air-condition system HVAC is emphasised. The trends in developing efficient HVAC system for future electrified powertrain are analysed.


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To meet HEV's fast torque response, vector control algorithm based on rotor flux-oriented and simulation model is concerned and modular designs for controller's hardware and software are presented in the paper in order to build a platform to achieve the vector control of asynchronous induction motor. Analyze the controller's electromagnetic compatibility, introduce the corresponding antijamming measures to assure the normal operation of the electromagnetic sensitive devices such as CAN bus; experiment proves that the measure is practical and feasible. On the basis of the control logic correct, such as improving CAN bus communication reliability, assuring power-on sequence and fault treatment, carry on the motor bench experiment, test its static properties, and adjust the controller parameters. The experimental results show that the designed driving system has the performance of low speed and high torque, a wide range of variable speed and high comprehensive efficiency. Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV is the vehicle with two or more power supplies one of these is electrical energy [ 1 , 2 ], such as unit of internal combustion engine and secondary cell or unit of fuel cell and secondary cell.

Electric vehicle

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Он не собирался умирать. Он рассчитывал, сидя в испанском баре, услышать по Си-эн-эн пресс-конференцию об американском сверхсекретном компьютере, способном взломать любые шифры. После этого он позвонил бы Стратмору, считал пароль с кольца на своем пальце и в последнюю минуту спас главный банк данных АНБ. Вдоволь посмеявшись, он исчез бы насовсем, превратившись в легенду Фонда электронных границ. Сьюзан стукнула кулаком по столу: - Нам необходимо это кольцо.

Что помогло бы мне? - сказал Беккер. Росио покачала головой: - Это. Но вам ее не найти.

 Она хотела его продать. - Не волнуйся, приятель, ей это не удалось. У тебя скверный вкус на ювелирные побрякушки. - Ты уверен, что его никто не купил.

 - Кто будет охранять охранников.

 - Беккеру нравилось это немецкое слово, означающее убийство. От него так и веяло холодом. - Ermordung.

Сьюзан прочитала их. Стратмор в отчаянии нажал на кнопку просмотра. ОБЪЕКТ: ЭНСЕЙ ТАНКАДО - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: ПЬЕР КЛУШАР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА… Список на этом не заканчивался, и Стратмора охватил ужас.

Не дождавшись ответа, он вошел. Типичная для Испании туалетная комната: квадратная форма, белый кафель, с потолка свисает единственная лампочка. Как всегда, одна кабинка и один писсуар.

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 В последние несколько лет наша работа здесь, в агентстве, становилась все более трудной. Мы столкнулись с врагами, которые, как мне казалось, никогда не посмеют бросить нам вызов.

2 Comments

  1. Ulrico H. 22.04.2021 at 17:47

    Within an electric drivetrain, the inverter controls the electric motor.

  2. Orazurly 23.04.2021 at 23:44

    Kwang Hee Nam received his B.