Handbook Of Chemical And Biological Warfare Agents Pdf

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handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents pdf

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A chemical weapon CW is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Second Edition covers every aspect of deadly toxic chemicals used in conflicts, warfare and terrorism. Including findings from experimental as well as clinical studies, this essential reference offers in-depth coverage of individual toxicants, target organ toxicity, major incidents, toxic effects in humans, animals and wildlife, biosensors and biomarkers, on-site and laboratory analytical methods, decontamination and detoxification procedures, and countermeasures. Expanding on the ground-breaking first edition, Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents has been completely updated, presenting the most recent advances in field.

E-mail: rjcpblack gmail. An overview is provided of the development, historical use and properties of chemical warfare agents from until the present. The advent of large scale tactical and strategic chemical warfare occurred almost one year into World War I.

General Information on Biological Agents / Diseases

E-mail: rjcpblack gmail. An overview is provided of the development, historical use and properties of chemical warfare agents from until the present. The advent of large scale tactical and strategic chemical warfare occurred almost one year into World War I.

More than 30 agents were used, the most effective being phosgene and sulfur mustard. An important milestone during that conflict was the development of the volatile nerve agents, tabun, sarin and soman, and in the post-war period the development of the low volatility V-type nerve agents. Sarin, soman, VX and RVX became the major components of modern arsenals together with the vesicants sulfur mustard and lewisite. Other milestones have been the dissemination of sarin by terrorists in Japan in and , the use of an incapacitant to end the siege of a Moscow theatre in , and the entry into force in of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

The year was the centenary of the commencement of the —18 war [World War I WWI ], a conflict that resulted in more than 20 million deaths and unprecedented numbers of casualties.

A notorious development of that conflict was the widespread use of chemical weapons, manufactured on an industrial scale. Nevertheless, their use in conflicts in Iraq in the s and more recently in Syria in , particularly against unprotected civilian populations, has served as a reminder that the dangers still exist, even though a near comprehensive treaty, the Chemical Weapons Convention CWC , entered into force in April Dating from ancient times there had been sporadic exploitation of toxic chemicals for use in warfare; examples include poisoned arrows, the burning of sulfur to produce asphyxiating fumes, and the use of crude irritants to drive defenders into the open.

The lachrymator ethyl bromoacetate was used in France for law enforcement operations from — More detailed historical accounts are available. The most significant development in the decades before WWI was the rapid expansion of the chemical industries of the main protagonists. Commodity and other chemicals were being produced in large industrial plants on multi-tonne scales, and this laid the foundation for the subsequent production of CW agents on a scale suited to WWI battlefields.

The advent of the tactical and strategic large scale use of chemical weapons occurred almost one year into WWI. Major land battles, mostly in Europe and Russia, involved thousands of soldiers entrenched in high concentrations on vast, muddy and relatively flat areas of land. These attritional battles often continued for weeks or even months, many resulting in stalemate.

The high concentration of relatively static entrenched combatants, initially with little protection, was seen as an ideal target for chemical weapons, offering a possible means of breaking the stalemate. The main CW agents used in WWI were various irritants, chlorine, phosgene, and in the later stages sulfur mustard. The first minor and ineffective use of chemical weapons in WWI occurred in August when French forces fired 26 mm grenades containing the lachrymator ethyl bromoacetate at German troops.

This too was largely ineffective because the agent froze in the cold conditions of the eastern front. Use of various lachrymatory and respiratory irritants continued, with more than twenty being used in WWI. The seminal incident generally regarded as the advent of large scale tactical CW occurred at the battle of Ypres, Belgium, on 22 April German troops released tons of the industrial gas and lung injurant chlorine from cylinders, late in the afternoon and in a slight breeze towards entrenched allied soldiers.

Chlorine is much denser than air, and lingered close to the ground and trenches; casualty numbers are uncertain but probably totalled several thousand. Further releases of chlorine occurred on both the western and eastern fronts in It was used much less successfully by British forces at Loos in October , when a late change of wind direction moved the toxic cloud back towards entrenched British soldiers.

Basic protective countermeasures were developed and chlorine on its own was gradually abandoned in favour of phosgene, although use continued in admixture with phosgene and chloropicrin. The year saw the first use, initially by France, of the highly volatile industrial chemical phosgene. Phosgene was more insidious than chlorine, being colourless, its odour fresh mown hay less obvious, and onset of serious overt effects pulmonary oedema delayed for several hours.

It was initially released from cylinders alone or mixed with chlorine, but was later liquefied and used in projectiles. It was therefore more persistent, and more easily handled and loaded into projectiles. The most effective chemical agent of WWI proved to be the liquid vesicant sulfur mustard, which caused more casualties than all of the other agents combined, even though it was introduced late in the war.

Development and use by British, French and US forces soon followed. Not only did sulfur mustard cause serious blistering by contact with the skin, its vapour caused serious damage to the eyes and lining of the respiratory tract. One of the enduring images of WWI is a chain of walking mustard casualties with bandages over their damaged eyes. Both sides experimented with other agents, mostly volatile noxious industrial chemicals but also some solid agents. Chloropicrin, which was first used by Russian forces, caused a significant number of deaths when used at high concentration.

More toxic chemicals included hydrogen cyanide HCN , cyanogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide. It is slightly less dense than air and rapidly dispersed, making it difficult to sustain effective dosage levels with the munitions available. The French later used the denser cyanogen chloride. Several respiratory irritant arsenicals, some also with vesicant action, were used in the later stages of WWI, e. As solids disseminated as crude particulate aerosols rather than vapour, they were conceived by Germany as possible mask breakers, and used in combination with more toxic lung injurants.

They were countered by inclusion of a mechanical filter in the mask. Notwithstanding this protocol, further development of existing and new chemical agents, plus more effective munitions and delivery systems, continued. The lachrymator 1-chloroacetophenone CN was developed as the standard riot control and harassing agent by the USA and adopted in other countries.

Research continued into more effective defensive countermeasures detection, protective clothing, respirators, medical countermeasures and decontaminants. CW agents were reportedly used in several localised, mainly colonial, conflicts in the interwar years. A year later Japan began using chemical weapons on the Chinese mainland. The most important development during this period, which occurred during the build up to WWII, was the chance discovery and military development of organophosphorus nerve agents in Germany.

In , the chemist Gerhardt Schrader, working in the laboratories of the industrial conglomerate IG Farben, synthesised an experimental organophosphorus insecticide that proved to be an order of magnitude more toxic to animals than any agent used in WWI.

The discovery was disclosed to the military, and the chemical was developed in secrecy into the CW agent named tabun. Perhaps a more convincing argument was that first use would simply result in retaliation in kind.

The major protagonists had built large stockpiles of chemical weapons in the build up to and during WWII, chiefly sulfur mustard, small quantities of nitrogen mustards, lewisite, various other arsenicals, phosgene, HCN and cyanogen chloride.

HCN in the form of Zyklon B, a commercial pesticide formulation of HCN adsorbed onto a solid support, was used to kill up to a million people in the gas chambers by Nazi Germany. Japan continued to use chemical agents on mainland China, chiefly sulfur mustard, and possibly lewisite, DC and phosgene. Systematic molecular modification of tabun led to the more potent and volatile nerve agent sarin, which was later to become one of the major components of modern chemical arsenals. A less volatile analogue of sarin, given the name soman, was developed by Germany towards the end of the war see Section 1.

Britain and the USA had also researched organophosphorus compounds as potential CW agents during this period but the leading candidate, O , O -diisopropyl fluorophosphate DFP , was significantly less potent than tabun. Interest in tabun then gradually waned as sarin GB became the favoured nerve agent.

Other nations, e. France, built pilot plants and acquired small stockpiles of sarin. History was repeated in when a low volatility organophosphorus pesticide, later named amiton, was discovered in the plant protection laboratories of Imperial Chemical Industries ICI in the UK. The discovery was disclosed to the UK Porton Down laboratory, where molecular modification led to the development of the low volatility V venomous agents in a collaboration with the USA and Canada.

Similar agents were developed independently in the Soviet Union. The USA weaponised the analogue designated VX, based mainly on a combination of its toxicity and storage stability. These agents were developed and stockpiled with the possibility of a major conflict between western and Soviet forces, e. The relative importance of these agents is reflected in the later declarations to the CWC see Table 1.

Both started to develop binary weapons, wherein two reactive precursors are placed in a munition separated in rupturable compartments.

On firing, the barrier is broken and the rotation caused by rifling of the munition results in rapid mixing of the precursors to produce the agent during the time of flight. Major advances were made in defensive countermeasures during this period, such as manual and automated detectors for warning and monitoring contamination , protective clothing and respirators, decontaminants and medical countermeasures, the latter particularly against nerve agents. Examples were canister penetrating volatile organofluorine agents e.

CN was gradually replaced by the more effective and less toxic irritant 2-chlorobenzilidene malononitrile CS for law enforcement, riot control and military use; pepper spray was widely introduced for self defence or as an aid to arrest. The use of irritants for civilian riot control increased substantially during these years in an age of widespread protest. From the s there were programmes in several countries aimed at exploiting the rapidly increasing pace of pharmaceutical and veterinary drug discovery, particularly centrally acting drugs, for military or law enforcement purposes.

Chemical weapons have been used in at least four conflicts in the Middle East, and it remains the most volatile region with regard to CW. Sulfur mustard and phosgene were reported to have been used by Egypt in its intervention in the North Yemen civil war in the mids. Four years later, retrospective investigations of an attack on the Kurdish village of Birjinni provided the first analytical evidence corroborating the use of sarin and further use of sulfur mustard.

Most recently the use of sarin was confirmed in the internal conflict in Syria, although the UN investigative mission did not identify the perpetrators. Although there have been incidents of small scale terrorist or criminal use of irritants, poisons and powders contaminated with the toxin ricin, the perceived threat of moderate scale dissemination of chemical agents by terrorists has not materialised other than in Japan in the s.

The judges survived but seven others were killed with around casualties. The second use of sarin by Aum Shinrikyo was to have a major impact on home security programmes throughout the world.

The attack resulted in 12 deaths with approximately serious casualties. The main reasons for the low number of deaths were the crudeness of the agent and rather slow method of dissemination. The cult also used VX in an assassination. With the increasing terrorist threat of hostage taking and aircraft hijacking, the search for potent knockdown incapacitating chemicals for counter-terrorist operations continued in several countries.

After years of negotiation, a near comprehensive chemical weapons treaty, the CWC, was opened for signature in April and entered into force in October Furthermore, it requires all stockpiles to be declared and destroyed.

The deadline for the latter was initially , but this was extended first to and now to because of the technical and economic complexities of destruction. Table 1. CW agents have been classified in several ways. Alternatively, they may be classified more specifically according to their main physiological effects: Vesicants blister agents , lung injurants choking agents , blood agents, nerve agents, irritants skin, eye and respiratory , incapacitants.

A third way of classifying agents is according to their physicochemical properties: Non-persistent moderate to high volatility , persistent low volatility. Physicochemical properties are a major determinant of the hazard as opposed to the toxicity of an agent, and hence the most likely mode of use. Efficient dissemination is key to the effectiveness of a chemical weapon.

Non-persistent agents e. The major portal of entry is the lung, although the eyes may also be important. Non-persistent agents have been disseminated using modified conventional munitions as a mixture of vapour, aerosol and small droplets, according to their vapour pressure and the energy used for dissemination.

Chemical warfare agents

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Handbook of chemical and biological warfare agents

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Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. CW agents are extremely toxic synthetic chemicals that can be dispersed as a gas, liquid or aerosol or as agents adsorbed to particles to become a powder.

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Я хотел уйти с сознанием, что добился своей цели. - Но вы добились своей цели, - словно со стороны услышала Сьюзан собственный голос, - Вы создали ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Казалось, Стратмор ее не слышал. - В последние несколько лет наша работа здесь, в агентстве, становилась все более трудной. Мы столкнулись с врагами, которые, как мне казалось, никогда не посмеют бросить нам вызов. Я говорю о наших собственных гражданах. О юристах, фанатичных борцах за гражданские права, о Фонде электронных границ - они все приняли в этом участие, но дело в другом.

Скажите, что мы сдаемся. Немедленно! - Джабба достал из кармана мобильник.  - Давайте мне его номер. Я сам позвоню этому… - Не беспокойтесь, - прошептала Сьюзан.  - Танкадо мертв. Все замерли в изумлении. Возможные последствия полученного известия словно пулей пронзили Джаббу.

 - Беккер не мог поверить, что это говорит он. Если бы Сьюзан слышала меня сейчас, - подумал.  - Я тоже толстый и одинокий. Я тоже хотел бы с ней покувыркаться. Заплачу кучу денег. Хотя спектакль и показался достаточно убедительным, но Беккер зашел слишком .

 Ну вот и хорошо.

 Фильтры Протокола передачи файлов выходят из строя! - крикнул кто-то из технического персонала. - Нам нужен этот предмет, - сказал Фонтейн.  - Где сейчас находится Халохот. Смит бросил взгляд через плечо.

Халохот попробовал отклониться влево, но не успел и со всей силы ударился об него голенью. В попытке сохранить равновесие он резко выбросил руки в стороны, но они ухватились за пустоту. Внезапно он взвился в воздух и боком полетел вниз, прямо над Беккером, распростертым на животе с вытянутыми вперед руками, продолжавшими сжимать подсвечник, об который споткнулся Халохот. Халохот ударился сначала о внешнюю стену и только затем о ступени, после чего, кувыркаясь, полетел головой. Пистолет выпал из его рук и звонко ударился о камень.

Он мысленно прорепетировал предстоящее убийство. Если у входа на площадку взять вправо, можно увидеть самый дальний левый угол площадки, даже еще не выйдя на. Если Беккер окажется там, Халохот сразу же выстрелит.

3 Comments

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